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Transcript of Classical Conditioning
By Michelle Altice, Sean Powell, Evelyn Luu, Brianna K
Extinction: When the CS no longer produces the CR
Example: In the conditioning of an eye blink experiment, extinction would occur when you tap the glass of water and it does not condition an eye blink.
What Is Learning?
: Learned when two significant events occur close together
: an awareness of how likely the US will occur
Classical conditioning treatments that ignore cognition often have limited success
Studied salivary secretion in dogs
Noticed that dogs began to salivate to stimuli associated with food
Considered this an annoyance but realized they point to a certain form of learning
focused on learning from there on
Pavlov and Watson
-basic laws of learning were similar in all animals
Studied rats that drank flavored water that caused them to vomit
Rats developed a
to the water and avoided drinking it
Spontaneous Recovery: When the CR returns after a period of extinction
Ex: After extinction had already happened, you tap the glass of water and it conditions an eye blink
Generalization: When stimuli similar to the CS produce the conditioned response
Ex: when toddlers are taught to fear moving cars in the street also respond similarly to trucks and motorcycles.
Discrimination: When stimuli similar to the CS
produce the conditioned response
EX: Confronted by a pit bull, your heart may race; confronted by a golden retriever, it probably will not.
Learning enables virtually all animals to adapt to their environment
Learning can be studied objectively
Consciousness, motivation, emotion, health, psychological disorders, and therapy apply to Pavlov's principles of classical conditioning in human health and well-being
(Ex: Former crack cocaine users feel a
craving when encountering a cue associated with previous highs)
believed human emotions and behaviors, though biologically influenced, are mainly a bundle of condition responses
Behavioral techniques are used to treat emotional disorders
is a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience
We learn by ASSOCIATION
is learning that certain events occur together
example: we associate lightning with the sound of thunder and the next time we see lightning, we wince, anticipating thunder
is a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli
also called Pavlonian or respondent conditioning
Pavlov and Watson believed in
which was the view that psychology should be an objective science that studies behavior without reference to metal processes
Pavlov and Watson believed that the mentalistic concepts like consciousness were the same for all animals --dogs or humans
Unconditioned Stimulus (US): Stimulus that naturally and automatically triggers a response
Unconditioned Response (UR): Unlearned, Naturally occurring Response
Conditioned Stimulus (CS): Originally irrelevant stimulus that after association with the US comes a triggered response
Conditioned Response (CR): Learned response to previously neutral stimulus
The phase associating neutral stimulus with a unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to create a conditioned response.
Occurs when there is a response to the conditioned stimulus without the presence of the unconditioned stimulus
A baby (Little Albert), studied by Watson, was conditioned to fear white, fluffy rabbits
Baby would show
with white rats, dogs, and coats