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The Open Boat & The Old Man and the Sea

Naturalism and realism

Maple Chiang

on 16 December 2013

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Transcript of The Open Boat & The Old Man and the Sea

Naturalism & Realism
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The Old Man and the Sea
 mid 19th century till late 19th and early 20th century
 effected by the emergence of Darwin’s theory of Evolution
 typical subjects
 depiction of everyday and banal activities and experiences
 fidelity to actuality
 journalistic techniques
 internal monologues and keen understanding of human psychology.
 Narrative style: unreliable narrator, frame narrative (the story inside the story)
 Major Realism Writers: de Balzac, Honoré (1799-1850), Eliot, George (1819-1880), William Dean Howells, Stephen Crane
 1880s-1940s
 detailed realism
 influenced by Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution
 exposed the dark harshness of life
 themes: ‘man against nature’ or ‘man against himself’
Major Naturalism Writers: Wharton, Edith (1862-1937), Zola, Emile (1840-1902), Crane, Stephen (1871-1900)
The Open Boat
The Open Boat
by Stephen Crane

The Old Man and the Sea
by Ernest Hemingway

Summary of The Open Boat
Stephen Crane
by Stephen Crane
by Ernest Hemingway
Summary of The Old Man and the Sea
Ernest Miller Hemingway
Santiago is a poverty-stricken Cuban fisherman who has gone eighty-four days without catching any fish. The other fishermen feel either contempt or pity for him, and his best friend, a boy named Manolin, has been forbidden to fish with him anymore because of his bad luck. Nonetheless, the boy idolizes the old man and spends as much time with him as possible when they’re on shore, taking care of him and talking to him of American baseball and especially of “the great DiMaggio,” whose father was a fisherman. Santiago sets out to sea alone, determining that he will fish farther out than the other fishermen do. He sets his lines and waits—and finally hooks a large fish. Although he has not seen the fish, he feels a spiritual connection with it, and his respect for it grows as it pulls him farther and farther from shore. For two days and two nights the fish pulls Santiago, who never releases his grip on the line. Finally the huge marlin, the largest fish Santiago has ever seen, surfaces and fights for his life. The old man overcomes his own physical and mental exhaustion as well as the fish’s great strength and finally harpoons him. Because the fish is too large to fit into the old man’s skiff, he ties it to the side and turns back to shore. After only an hour, the first shark attacks. One after another, first singly, then in groups, sharks maul his catch. Santiago, pushed past anything human endurance could be expected to withstand, knowing he is beaten, continually fights them off, killing some but losing his harpoon and knife in the process. The sharks win: by the time Santiago gets back to shore, all that’s left of the eighteen-foot fish is his head, his backbone, and his tail. Reaching his village late at night, the old man drags himself home and collapses. The next morning Manolin brings him food and encouragement, weeping when he sees the old man’s battered hands. When Santiago awakes, he says, “They beat me, Manolin…. They truly beat me.” In reality, though, the old man has been “destroyed but not defeated.” The whole village has seen the great fish's skeleton and understands Santiago's achievement. He will fish again, and, in spite of his parents’ prohibition, Manolin will join the old man from now on: “I’ll bring the luck with me,” he promises.
American author and journalist
Iceberg theory
Love, war, wildness, loss
The Sun Also Rises(1926)
-first novel
A Farewell to Arms(1929)
-war time experience novel
Committed suicide in 1961

American writer
Realist ,naturalism, impressionism
Poetry, journalism, short stories
Influence Hemingway
Maggie: A Girl of the Street (1893)
-first novel
The Red Badge of Courage(1895)
-civil war novel

Let's begin
I. Themes: man against nature/himself, the nature is indifferent to human
 The setting in The Old Man and the Sea
 The ending in The Old Man and the Sea
 The death of Oiler in The Open Boat
The fight between Santiago and sharks

II. Expose the dark and harshness in life/the environment shaping human character
 The setting in The Open Boat

1. internal monologue

p.266 line177 in The Open Boat
2. journalistic techniques
 correspondent’s point of view in The Open Boat
 base on real experience in The Open Boat

3. fidelity to actuality
Santiago struggling to pull up Marlin
 Point of view: the correspondent
 four men in a dinghy.
 They do not have a moment’s peace.
 The correspondent and the Oiler: rowing; the cook huddles on the floor of the dinghy, bailing water; The captain take their direction but the bad memory lingers
 As days breaks: the cook and correspondent bicker about being rescued
a gull lands on the captain’s head; crews views it as a sinister; eventually, the captain shoos the bird away
 SIGN OF HOPE: The captain sees a lighthouse in the distance and the crews heartens at approaching land
 The correspondent even finds four dry and four wet cigars in a pocket, which he shares with the others.
 The men’s optimism evaporates when, approaching land yet unable to master the turbulent surf, they realize that help isn’t coming.
 ANOTHER SIGN OF HOPE: the captain sees a man on shore.
 During the night, the correspondent and oiler, exhausted from rowing, plan to alternate throughout the night.
 For the most part, the correspondent rows alone, thinking of a poem he learned in childhood about a soldier dying in a distant land, never to return home.
 When morning comes, the captain suggests that they try to run the surf while they still have enough energy.
 The oiler leads the group, while the cook and correspondent swim more slowly and the captain holds onto the keel of the overturned dinghy.
 A wave hurls the correspondent to shallower water, where he is saved by a man who has appeared on shore and plunged into the sea to save the crew.
 The correspondent learns that the captain and cook have been saved but the oiler has died
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