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HISTORY

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Ebony Halliwell

on 25 June 2014

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Transcript of HISTORY

Along the side of a rock is a covered water channel that collects water from rain, it slides down the rock spilling into this channel that transport it throughout the city.
Along the other side of the rock is a clay water pipe that also carries water into the city.
A Museum in Petra has these two pieces of pipe that the nabataeans put in the cities to transport water throughout the homes and needed areas. The pipes are so advanced that the clay pipes have tapered ends, that we modern people only figured out in the last two hundred years.
Further along the street, the water pipe that was running down at your feet is now running far up above the face of the rock. With the Nabataeans they kept the water pipes dropping slowly so as to provide water pressure within he city center.
Throughout the city of Petra are hundreds of water cisterns. Every possible drop of rainwater, as well as the water piped into the city was stored and used later if needed.
Trading
Petra was founded along the ancient trade routes between Arabia, Egypt, and the Mediterranean Sea. As a center for trade, the capital became very wealthy and powerful. Petra flourished for centuries even after it as taken over by the roman empire in A.D. 106. Eventually, Rome moved the center of trade away from Petra and the city's importance slowly faded. over time the city that was once vital capital was abandoned and fell into ruins.
Threats
collapse of ancient structures
erosion due to flooding
improper rainwater drainage
weathering from salt upwelling
improper restoration of ancient structures
unsustainable tourism
Climate
Natural resources
sandstone
natural bed rock
mountains guided water to cisterns
Population
Population:big city 20,000 inhabitants
Agriculture
Supported themselves with agriculture and raising livestock. They built terraces, and walls of which are still to be found in what is now desert, in order to cultivate vines and olive trees. Also to breed camels, sheep, goats and horses.
Religion
Petra's tombs, temples, high places, stone God-blocks (Betyles), and cultic riches. They had a religios function. They seemed to have a comparatively small pantheon of Gods, the cheif two being Dushara, who was male and his female counterpart Al-Vzza.
Houses
In Petra the houses were carved like tombs into the rock. Excavations also revealed houses built of limestone blocks with roofs made of stone slabs supported by arenes.
Natural Resources
sandstone
natural bed rocks
mountains
Produce
They made sandstone objects and painting, along with all the buildings.
Markets
Pompeii
Access To Water
public fountains found at street corners, some people had a water source in there home (rich people)
Climate
Mediterranean climate, meaning that summers are hot, though they are tempered by a balmy sea breeze.
Lots of rain
Natural Resources
Population
Between 10,000 and 20,000
Agriculture/products
Vegetables
Olives for oil
Herds raised for sheep meat/milk/wool
Garum-fish sauce
bread
Social Life
Houses
Istanbul/Constantinople
Water Access
Constantinople had old water cisterns but they never understood where or how they got there.
The climate of Istanbul is subtropical, with average summer temperatures of 28c and winter average of 8c. Annual precioitation is around 800mm.
Economy
Natural Resources
Climate
Fishing
Timber
Hemp
Rain
Trade
Constantinople gave the ottomans access to trade routes of Africa and Europe.
It was one of the largest cities in the world.
It served as one of the main transit points for good being sent to Western Europe.
Agriculture
Heavy plow, tree field system of rotation.
Use of mills for processing cloth, brewing beer, crushing pulp for paper and widespread use of iron and horses.
Livestock farming.
Flax processed to oil, rope and textile production.
Cotton-grown.
Mulberry trees-grown=prevent=silkworm
Bee keeping-honey, candle-wax.
Olive oil, fish, beans, cabbage, onions, leeks, pears, cherrys, plums, nuts, animal milk, eggs (hens).
Population
The population in Constantinople is 80,000.
Access To Water
There markets would be related to their trades
Petra
Amphitheater-ultra violent gladiator vs gladiator
Trade
Pompeii know as the trade of southern Campania for 600 years. Trade involving Pompeii was associated with numerous areas of northern Italy. Trade through the Harbour at Pompeii involved an importation and exportation of goods.
Rain
Soil (water holding soil)
Extensive Gardens
Orchards
Ancient Egypt (Jordan)
Ancent Rome
Industries- automotive, truck assembly, ship building, ship repairing, cement production, cigarettes, food products, fruit, olive oil, silk, glass, cotton, leather, pottery and more
The Vikings
Water Access
The Vikings traveled a lot so they traded with countries, one of the resources were water since it rained a lot in North Atlantic water wasn't a problem.
Orkney has a cool temperature. The average yearly temperature
is 8C; for winter 4C and for summer 12C.The rained average is from 850mm to 940mm.
Natural Resources
mountains
forests
healthland
Religion
The Vikings had a pagan religion with many Gods. They had myths that often involved complex relationships between mythical creatures, human and gods.
Trade
The Vikings were mainly farmers, fishers,hunters,and skilled craftsmen. They were restricted by their natural resources therefore turning to trade with the countries of Europe, Russia and the Orient, only when the season was favorable.
Produce
They products, Hides, furs, ivory, slaves, was, walrus, salt cod, weapons, woolen cloth, amber, whetstones, soapstone, the vikings raided countries and stole stuff to trade.
Markets
Long range market of products including, dried fish and grain as well as their marine products and agricultural products.
Houses
Viking houses are often called longhouse (manly oblong in shape).
Roofs made of grass if trees were scarce.
Walls made of timber or turf if trees were scarce.
Climate
Orkney
Is Utopian City Design Possible?
My perfect city
Bibliography
http://nabataea.net/waterw.html
http://www.audieytravel.com/Destination/North-Africa-and-The-Middle-East/Jordan/Places-to-go/Petra/
http://www.amnh.org/ology/features/petra/
http://www.livescience.com/25945-ancinet-terrace-farming-petra.html
http://www.atlastours.net/jordan/mabataeans.html
http://looklex.com/e.o/istanbul.htm
http://www.worldweatheronline.com/Istanbul-weather-averages/Istanbul/TR.aspx
http://answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=2010090714834AAI4xYE
http://historum.com/european-history/29917-largest-euopean-city-throughout-history_2.html
http://www.uncp/edu/home/rwb/lecture_mid_civ.htm
http://beforeitsnews.com/food-and-farming/2013/04/the_grapevines-of-pompeii_2450930.html
http://archeaology.about.com/od/archeaologicalsi3/ss/pompeii_streets_8.htm
http://www.tripadviser.com.au/travel-gl87786-s208/Pompeii:Italy:weather.And.When.To.Go.html
http://museum.wa.gov.au/pompeii/daily-life/business
http://nswers.yahoo.com/index?qid=2008041414139AA0Bwk
http://www.britishmuseum.org/explore/highlights/articles/v/vikings_sea_raiders_and_trade.aspx
http://www.britishmuseum.org.pdf/Vist_Vikings_KS2c.pdf
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mainland,_Orkney
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orkney
http://www.nabohome.org/meetings/glthec/material/simpson/Simpson_quogrew_Geoarchaelolgy.pdf
http://www.llanbister.powys.sch.vk/Vik6.htm
powerpoint-The Economy
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