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Transcript of APA Guidelines
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Testing theories and opinions 1. In-text Comes at the end of your paper (last page)
compilation of ALL of the resources used
if you have an in-text citation, the full citation should be included in the reference list Reference List (General) The Basics of APA Citation 2. Reference List Used in the text of your paper A separate page at the end of your paper which includes ALL of your resources Citation Guidelines Example: (Holden, 1995, p. 234). Note the placemenet of the end-punctuation Practice 1: Take the following and create a properly punctuated in-text citation Norman Kelloway 2004 page 133 Solutions Practice 1: (Kelloway, 2004, p. 133). Practice 3: Take the following information and create a reference list citation In-Text Citations Reference List Page APA Style Body of Paper Last Page of Paper "Brief" citation "Full" citation Occur in the body of the paper
"in" the text Snapshot of your reference
Brief citation Used for quotations and paraphrasing Practice 3: Kelloway, N. (2004). Rumors:
Gossip for dummies.
London: Oxford Publishing,
133-157 Solutions Norman Kelloway 2004 London Oxford Publishing Rumors: Gossip for dummies pages 133-157 APA--what's that??! American Psychological Association Purpose? Two types of Citation: Reference Lists: The Specifics Citations must include: Author's last name and initial
date of publication
Place of publication
page range used Jones, M. (1995). The rules of the game.
Toronto: The Greatest Publishing Group,
17-22. Example: Capitalization
Punctuation Note: Practice 2: "The first rule to gossiping is ensuring the people you are talking about are not in the vicinity." Using the resource information above and the quotation below, create a sample entry in your "paper" Solutions Practice 2: According to Kelloway (2004), becoming a successful gossip can be obtained by following a few key rules: "The first rule to gossiping is ensuring the people you are talking about are not in the vicinity (p. 134)." As is seen by the definition of gossiping above, an integral part of talking about others is their absence from the conversation. Format of Reference List:
(all lines after 1st is tabbed)
alphabetical order References Jones, M. (1995). The rules of the game. Toronto:
The Greatest Publishing Group, 17-22.
Kelloway, N. (2004). Rumors: Gossip for dummies.
London: Oxford Publishing, 133-157.
Young, C. (2013). How to cite with APA. St. John's:
CNA Books, 1-15. SAMPLE: Citing Different types of Resources Books
# of authors
editions Scholarly Articles
Online? Electronic Sources
Webpage vs. Website
Dates? Authors? Newspaper Articles
Title of Newspaper
Title of Article Books: Basic Format Citing: Authors
(Reference Page) Last Name, Initial. (Year of Publication). Title of book. Place of Publication: Publisher, page numbers. Kennedy, A. (1915). Life and love.
Cork, Ireland: Shamrock Books,
11-18. 1 to 7 Authors 7 + Authors Single Author vs. Multiple Authors Use an ampersand to connect:
Barrymore, D., & Vaughn, M.
Gellar, S.M., Hannigan, A., & Benson, A. Each author's name is followed by a comma
use '&' before the last author Keep the order of authors as it
appears in the text Should be no more than 7 names Include the 1st 6 authors
use ellipsis after 6th name (...)
Include last author's name Identify "type" Articles:
Journals, Periodicals, and Newspaper Journal: No Author?? Organization as Author: Statistics Canada. (2011). Population Density.
Retrieved from http://www.stancan.ca/popdens2011 http://owl.english.purdue.edu/media/jpeg/APAPoster09.jpg Website as Author: WebMD. (2013). Types of Eczema. Retrieved from
treatments/eczema/types-of-eczema NOTE: Titles Only capitalize the first word of titles EXCEPTIONS: Proper nouns
First word of subtitle
First word after a colon Example:
Society: The basics Last Name, Initial. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal,
volume (issue), page numbers. Lopez, S. (2009). Socioeconomic status and gender:
A subculture of systematic influence.
Sociological Journal of Class Studies, 13 (7), 18-
22. Magazine: Last Name, Initial. (Month, Year). Title of Article.
Title of Magazine, page numbers. Chenowith, K. (September, 2001). The 'wicked' in me.
Broadway Monthly, 66-68. Web Sources: REMEMBER The difference between a web page and a website include the full URL to the specific page you cite search the page thoroughly for citation information (date, author, etc...) Practice 4: Journal (RP Citation) 1984 Reid Jackson Newfoundland Studies Quarterly pages 44-73 Fishing Merchants: In Debt and Destitute in 19th century Newfoundland SOLUTIONS Practice 4: Jackson, R. (1984). In debt and destitute
in nineteenth century
Studies Quarterly, 3 (53), 44-73. Issue 53 Volume 3 Practice 5: Electronic Sources no date Wikipedia no author New German Cinema http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_German_Cinema Practice 5: SOLUTIONS New German Cinema. (n.d.). In
January 17, 2013 from
auth_key=k0tj648#8 http://prezi.com/user/CYoungCNA Any source from which you use exact wording
Any source from which you adapt material in your own words
Any visual illustration: chart, graph, drawing, etc. What Should You Document? Useful when you want to emphasize publication dates of references
Preferred system in the sciences
Parenthetical reference – used in the body of the report APA Documentation System Include the source, date, and page # (if there’s a direct quote) - (p. before a single page; pp. before multiple pages)
A comma separates each item in the citation
e.g., (Lennon, 1998, p. 15)
Can be written within a sentence or put in brackets at the end of a sentence or paragraph Citing in the Body of Your Report Short Quotes
Less than 40 words
Must give page number(s) if available
Bias refers to “constant or systematic error” (Anastasi, 1988, p. 194). Direct Quotations In the first citation – initials and surname, personal communication, exact date.
e.g., (G. Walsh, personal communication, February 8, 2005)
Just last name and year in subsequent citations.
e.g., (Walsh, 2005) Primary Source - Personal Interviews Source = writer(s) of the report
In first citation -surname, personal observation, exact date.
e.g., (Walsh, personal observation, February 2, 2005)
Just last name and year in subsequent citations.
e.g., (Walsh, 2005) Primary Source - Personal Observations One Author
Last name, year, page # (if there’s a direct quote)
Cite both names in each citation
Use an ampersand (&) if the names are in brackets Secondary Sources Three or More Authors
Use all authors’ surnames in first citation
Elder, Lopez, and Breen (2003) have documented ….
Use first author’s surname followed by et al. in subsequent citations.
Elder et al. (2003) have proposed … Secondary Sources Group or Corporate Author
Use full name of group as author in the first citation.
(Canadian Union of Public Employees [CUPE], 2004)
If an abbreviation is well known, you may use it for subsequent citations
(CUPE, 2004). Secondary Sources (Cont’d) Works With No Author
Use a shortened form of the title.
e.g., Standardized testing puts students from rural areas at a disadvantage (“Opportunity for All,” 1999). Secondary Sources (Cont’d) Works with No Author, No Date, and No Page Numbers
e.g., web article
Use the first few words from the article title, then the abbreviation n.d. inside the brackets
Do not invent page numbers even if there is a direct quote.
DO NOT PUT WEB ADDRESSES IN THE BODY OF YOUR REPORT! Secondary Sources (Cont’d) Long Direct Quotes
More than 40 words
Indented five spaces at the left margin (for the entire quote)
Do not use quotation marks
Must be single-spaced Direct Quotations Types of Primary Research? "Indirectly"Using ideas someone else created Quotation marks NOT needed Indirect Quotations AKA: Paraphrasing, summarizing, etc.