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Joy Chow

on 15 November 2014

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Transcript of Homelessness

mental illness
i.e. PTSD, TBI
limited job opportunities
Homelessness in Communities of Color
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Statistics show that blacks lost more jobs and wealth compared to other racial groups during the recession
of black families live in poverty, while only
of white families live in poverty
In 2010, blacks with an associate's degree experienced a higher employment rate than whites with a high-school diploma (10.8% and 95% percent, respectively)
Since October 2013, whites have seen a 1.5% point decline in unemployment rate compared to 2.2% decline for blacks
Economic Opportunities
Homelessness in Veterans
Homelessness in African American Youth
In 2008, black males age 18+ accounted for only 5% of college population, but 36% of prison population
In 2010, one out of every 141 persons in black families stayed in a homeless shelter
In 2010, among adults 20+, the unemployment rate of black males was twice as high as that of white males
In 2012, statistics showed that blacks accounted for 37% of those behind bars, even though they make up only 13% of the US population
One in five people who leave prison become homeless soon thereafter, if not immediately
Out of 395,817 people living in Oakland, 1 out of 5 people are homeless
The poorest 20% of Oakland make up only 3% of its wealth
Why Are Veterans Prone To Homelessness?
approx. 58,000 homeless veterans on any given night
about 40% of those veterans are African American
Youth refers to ages 15~24
African American youth are disproportionately represented in homeless population
black youth comprise 15.4 % of total US youth population yet comprise 27% of homeless youth
Study on difference between
White homeless youth and Black Homeless youth in Bay Area
White youth likely to be homeless running away on own due to dysfunctional family, "embrace" homeless
Black youth likely to be homeless as consequence of poverty, substance abuse, and failure of social services...highlights role of poverty, absent econ opportunities, failed institut. interventions.
Foster Care
In the study, African American youth more likely to report being removed from homes and placed in foster care.
African Americans make up 28% of foster care system...
released from foster care at 18 leaving them at high risk for homelessness/ gang violence
1/4 of former foster youth experience homelessness within 4 years of exiting foster care
2% of those released from foster care go on to complete college....

lack of education is one of biggest factor that can lead to homelessness
lack of higher education= barrier to stable employment
15.6% of African American males get Bachelors degrees as opposed to 32% of white males
Intersectionality of African American Veterans
Oh I grew up fast man...When you got certain family members on drugs, you can't do nothing but have to go... Crack took over the household so what you do? Just learn how to hold your head, how to make something happen for yourself.

17 year old African American Male.
Black youth less likely to identify self as "homeless"
homeless=shameful, hide at all costs
Black youth reject shelter because it identified them as homeless
Services targeted at homeless youth may miss black homeless youth
looked at approx. 104, 000 veterans
31% had mental health problems
UChicago: Racial Bias in Hiring
Are Emily and Brendan more employable than Lakisha and Jamal?
From July 2001 to May 2002, two professors sent fictitious resumes in response to 1,300 help-wanted ads listed in
Boston Globe
Chicago Tribune
Each resume was assigned either a very white-sounding name or a very African-American-sounding name
Research Results
50% lower callback rate for African-American applicants
Applicants with white names need to send about 10 resumes to get one callback, whereas applicants with African-American names need to send about 15 resumes to achieve the same results
Overall, resumes with white names have 9.65% chance of receiving a callback whereas equivalent resumes with African-American names have a 6.45% chance
BMW Case Study
Fired 70 black employees with criminal histories from a facility in South Carolina
One woman with 14 years under her belt was dismissed immediately after a misdemeanor conviction surfaced that was more than 20 years old and carried a meager $137 fine
Positive Feedback Loop
Most hirings are a result from referrals from current employees, which allows room for racial selectivity/discrimination
No job opportunities = resorting to crime/stealing
Not having enough, not having anything and having nothing to lose makes an individual desperate. It becomes survival through the poverty
Any criminal record, no matter how small, is an economic scarlet letter that can send otherwise very well qualified applicants to the bottom of the pile
"My brother once told me if you go to jail you ain't never getting out. Sure you'll get out for a little while, but you'll always go back. You'll go in there, do this, do that, make a name, and you'll never get out, you'll always carry that with you."
Poverty & Criminal Justice System
People that can afford bail are able to leave jail and conduct investigations, leaving them better prepared for trial
People who can afford to hire an attorney are less likely to be imprisoned
US allots just $2.25 per person for civil legal assistance
Some defendants are never assigned public defenders - they are often overworked
Consequences of Youth Homelessness
higher risk of engaging in behaviors that put them at risk of adverse health such as survival sex
sex in exchange for drug, money, shelter...
high prevalence of STI's
mental health problems such as severe anxiety and depression
substance abuse
criminal activity such as drug dealing, pimping, gang activity
Racism to Prison (Review)
Black males vastly overrepresented in the prison system
Recent data is that one in three black males can expect to be incarcerated in their lifetime
Not all for violent crimes - black males are
14 percent
of drug users but
37 percent
of those imprisoned for drug offenses
Leftover effects from racist policies stemming from War On Drugs and earlier
Prison to Homelessness
Being an ex-con makes re-assimilating into society incredibly difficult
Criminal record makes companies
less likely to call you back to receive a job offer (study by Bureau of Justice Statistics)
In big cities like LA and SF, an average of
of those currently on parole are homeless
More Issues for Ex-Cons
It is significantly harder to get mental help when you have a criminal record -
1 in 3
state and
1 in 4
federal prisoners manage to get mental help after admission
Those with criminal records are often disqualified for eligibility for housing in homeless shelters
Leader of SF Adult Probation Department says the department has plenty of money, but gets practically
no referrals
when trying to get ex-cons affordable housing
"Being homeless makes it much easier to re-offend"
This leads to a cycle where blacks are put in prison, discriminated against when they get out, and driven to live on the streets and wind up in even more
Intersectionality of those black, ex-con, and homeless
Racism in Housing
Until 1964, newspapers in St. Louis had housing sections specifically for "coloreds"
Fair Housing Act
in 1968 was not completely successful, still around
2 million
cases of housing discrimination a year the HUD estimates
of black people denied for morgages vs.
of white people
“Residential segregation, which affects black households to a greater extent than other minorities, perpetuates poverty patterns by isolating blacks in areas that lack employment opportunities and services, and experience higher crime and poverty rates” (citylimits.org)
Housing (continued)
A woman is riding the C-Train on a Thursday morning, perhaps on the way to work or school. She is caught riding without a ticket because she was unable to come up with the $2.50 it costs to purchase one for the day. For this, she can be fined $150. And if she has been charged for previous offenses, she may not qualify for community service and may be incarcerated. What does this mean if the woman is a single parent? How will her children grow up without a nurturing parent?
If you are black, realtors show you
fewer properties on average
If you get showed anything at all, it is likely to be in a high-crime, low-income area with many other people of your ethnic background
This is a practice known as
, and realtors who do not participate in steering have a harder time keeping up with competitors
This, more often than not, leads to a continuation of the cycle of poverty, which leads to more homelessness
To Summarize...
If you are black, you are more likely to end up in prison
If you are an ex-con and black, you are much less likely to end up getting a job
If you are an ex-con and black, you are much less likely to get housing
If you are homeless and in a high-crime area, you are very likely to re-offend
You end up back in prison, and the cycle continues
Full transcript