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Green Revolution in India
Transcript of Green Revolution in India
An increase in food production, especially in underdeveloped and developing nations, through the introduction of high-yield crop varieties and application of modern agricultural techniques. The introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds and the increased use of chemical fertilizers and irrigation are known collectively as the Green Revolution
Major Demerits or Problems of Green Revolution in India
Some of the major demerits or problems of green revolution in India are :
Important components of the green revolution in India
Green Revolution in India
Who introduced Green Revolution to India
M.S. Swaminathan introduced Green Revolution to India .He is known as the "Father of the Green Revolution in India". M. S. Swaminathan and his team had contributed towards the success of green revolution.
1. High Yielding Varieties (HYV) of seeds.
Major Economical Impact of Green Revolution in India
Like other developing countries, Green Revolution has influenced the economy and way of life in India to a great extent as is evident from the following points:
The introduction of Green Revolution in 1967-68 has resulted in phenomenal increase in the production of agricultural crops especially in food-grains. From 1967 onwards, the Green Revolution aimed at bringing about a Grain Revolution.
1. Increase in Agricultural Production:
With the increase in farm production the earnings of the farmers also increased and they became prosperous. This has, especially, been the case with big farmers having more than 10 hectares of land.
2. Prosperity of Farmers:
Among the food grains too, it is the wheat crop which drew maximum benefit from Green Revolution. The production of wheat increased by more than three times between 1967-68 and 2003-04 while the overall increase in the production of cereals was only two times. On account of this reason, it is said that the Green Revolution in India is largely the Wheat Revolution.
3. Capitalistic Farming:
Big farmers having more than 10 hectares of land have tended to get the maximum benefit from Green Revolution technology by investing large amount of money in various inputs like HYV seeds, fertilizers, machines, etc. This has encouraged capitalistic farming.
1. Inter-Crop Imbalances:
The effect of Green Revolution is primarily felt on food-grains. Although all food-grains including wheat, rice, jowar, bajra and maize have gained from the Green Revolution, it is wheat which has benefited the most. It has wrested areas from coarse cereals, pulses and oilseeds. The HYV seeds in latter crops have either not been developed so far at all, or they are not good enough for farmers to risk their adoption.
Green Revolution technology has given birth to growing disparities in economic development at interred and intra regional levels. It has so far affected only 40 per cent of the total cropped area and 60 per cent is still untouched by it. The most affected areas are Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh in the north and Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in the south.
2. Regional Disparities:
Except in Punjab, and to some extent in Haryana, farm mechanization under Green Revolution has created widespread unemployment among agricultural labourers in the rural areas. The worst hit are the poor and the landless people.
It has been observed that it is the big farmer having 10 hectares or more land, who is benefited the most from Green Revolution because he has the financial resources to purchase farm implements, better seeds, fertilizers and can arrange for regular supply of irrigation water to the crops.
4. Increase in Inter-Personal Inequalities:
As against this, the small and marginal farmers do not have the financial resources to purchase these farm inputs and are deprived of the benefits of Green Revolution Technology. There were about 1,053 lakh holdings in India in 1990-91 out of which only 1.6 per cent exceeded 10 hectares in size.
12. Agricultural Universities.
11. Farm Mechanisation.
10. Rural Roads and Marketing.
9. Rural electrification.
8. Supply of agricultural credit.
7. Land reforms.
6. Consolidation of holdings.
5. Command Area Development (CAD).
4. Use of Insecticides and Pesticides.
3. Use of fertilizers (chemical).
2. Irrigation (a) surface and (b) ground.