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An Exhibition in Six Courses: Testing Recipes from the Clark's Manuscript Collection

June 30 through September 30 • Curated by VR Specialist Jennifer Bastian • This Prezi is image-heavy and therefore memory-intensive; please close all other programs/windows before you begin.

Mike Garabedian

on 20 August 2013

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Transcript of An Exhibition in Six Courses: Testing Recipes from the Clark's Manuscript Collection

An Exhibition in Six Courses
Testing Recipes from the Clark’s Manuscript Collection

June 30 through September 30, 2013 • Curated by Visual Resources Specialist Jennifer Bastian
For ‘An Exhibition in Six Courses: Testing Recipes from the Clark’s Manuscript Collection,’ Visual Resources Specialist Jennifer Bastian curated a selection of manuscripts and books relating to 17th and 18th century cookery. She tested several recipes in her home kitchen and discussed the process and its results with attendees at the exhibition opening at the Clark on July 2, 2013.

Following are images of the manuscripts and books from ‘An Exhibition in Six Courses,’ photographs Jennifer snapped in her kitchen as she tested these several-hundred-year-old recipes, and select transcriptions for historically-minded chefs interested in trying the recipes out for themselves.

The First Course

Diagrams & Illustrations
1. Howard, Henry. England’s newest way in all sorts of cookery, pastry, and all pickles that are fit to be used. Adorn’d with copper plates, setting forth the manner of placing dishes upon tables; and the newest fashions of mince-pies. By Henry Howard, free-cook of London, and late cook to His Grace the Duke of Ormond, and since to the Earl of Salisbury, and the Earl of Winchelsea. London: Printed by William Dugard, 1651.

Call no. TX705.H6 1710*
2. [Recipe book of drinks]. [17--?].

Call no. MS.1976.021
3. Horsington, Sarah. Arcana, or, Mysteries in ye theory of physiology and chymistry. Being authentick rules, for preparing spagyricall medicaments, for my own observation and satisfaction. Also manyfold rare private receipts, and remedies, prescriptions of T:H: M:D: collected by ye industry of the transcribr of this manuscript, uxoris ejus S:H. [1666].

Call no. MS.2009.015
4. The modern cook : containing, instructions for preparing and ordering public entertainments for the tables of princes, ambassadors, noblemen, and magistrates. As also, the least expensive methods of providing for private families ... Adorned with copper plates, exhibiting the order of placing the different dishes, &c. on the table. London : Printed for Thomas Osborne, 1744.

Call no. TX705.L13 1744*
5. Lamb, Patrick. Royal cookery, or, The compleat court-cook : containing the choicest receipts in all the several branches of cookery ... as likewise forty plates, curiously engraven on copper, of the magnificent entertainments at coronations and instalments of balls, weddings, &c. at court, as likewise of city-feasts : to which are added, bills of fare for every month in the year. London : Printed for E. and R. Nutt, and A. Roper, and sold by D. Browne ..., J. Isted ..., and T. Cox ..., 1726.

Call no. TX705.L21.1776*
7. Carter, Charles. The London and country cook; or, Accomplished housewife : containing practical directions and the best receipts in all the branches of cookery and housekeeping ; such as boiling, roasting, pastry, pickling, jellies, preserving, confectionary, cakes, creams, cordials, syrups, English wines, &c. Interspersed with many sovereign and approved medicines used by private families in most distempers. London : Printed for Charles Hitch in Pater-noster Row, Stephen Austen in Newgate-Street, and John Hinton in St. Paul’s Church-yard, 1749.

Call no. TX705.C32L 1749*
6. Dorset dishes of the 17th century, edited by J. Stevens Cox. Dorchester, Dorset, Eng. : Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society, 1967.

Call no. TX705.C8d
8. Tryon, Thomas. A new art of brewing beer, ale, and other sorts of liquors. London : Tho. Salusbury, 1691.

Call no. TP569.T87 1691
11. Directions for brewing malt liquors. Shewing, what care is to be taken in the choice of water, malt, and hops. And in what proportions they are to be mixed, and how boyled and fermented, for making the best March, or October beer, strong ale, &c. In a method never before publish’d. Useful for all such as are curious in malt liquors. By a countrey gentleman. With A satyr upon brandy, by another hand. London : Printed for J. Nutt ..., 1700.

Call no. TP569.D598*
13. [Commonplace book]. Circa 1713-1740.

Call no. MS.1982.001
14. Child, Samuel. Every man his own brewer; or, A compendium of the English brewery. Containing the best instructions for the choice of hops, malt, and water ... the most approved methods of brewing ... and of manufacturing pure malt wines ... together with a variety of maxims and observations ... By a gentleman, lately retired from the brewing business. London : Printed for the author: and sold by J. Almon, opposite Burlington House, in Piccadilly; and Mess. Robinson and Roberts, in Pater-noster Row., MDCCLXVIII [1768].

Call no. TP569.C53*
9. Y-Worth, William. Introitus apertus ad artem distillationis; or, The whole art of distillation practically stated, and adorned with all the new modes of working now in use. In which is contained the way of making spirits ... To which is added the true and genuin way of preparing powers by three noble menstruums, sc. a purified sal armoniack [!], the volatile salt of tartar, and sal panaristos ... together with their virtues and dose. Illustrated with copper sculptures. London : Printed for J. Taylor and S. Holford, 1692.

Call no. TP589.Y99*
10. The London and country brewer Containing the whole art of brewing all sorts of malt-liquors, as practised both in town and country; according to observations made by the author in four years travels through the several counties in England. Also, the method of preserving liquors in the cask, and directions to be observed in bottling them. In three parts, to which is added, a supplement, By a person formerly concerned in a public brewhouse in London. London : Printed for T. Astley, 1742.

Call no. TP569.L84 1742*
The books on display in this case illustrate table settings for various occasions, bringing the formal etiquette of the upper classes and royalty into the home of the reader. The page spreads of the two manuscripts included here are wonderful examples of the care and attention given to personal cookery books – noting special characters and symbols for the reader’s use.
The page spreads on display here touch upon brewing processes, problem solving for home brewing, and the nature of water and its influence on brewing. Also included is a recipe for a Nottingham Ale the curator and Clark dissertation fellow Alex Eric Hernandez faithfully recreated for the exhibition’s opening event.
Beverages & Brewing
The Second Course
12. Sudell, Joanna. [Cookery book]. [1688-1751].

Call no. MS.1950.023
The Third Course

Breads, Biscuits, & Pastry
Pastries and baked goods were created under very different (and much more variable) circumstances in the 17th and 18th centuries than they are today. In the recipes included here, you can see the wide variety of types of instruction, from the very brief to the very specific.
The Fourth Course
The recipes contained within this case were among the most easily followed and the most culinarily successful of all of tested. While there were not a bountiful amount of recipes calling for fresh vegetables (many of those calling for vegetables were pickling recipes), those that did were simple and clear.
The Fifth Course
Meats & Mains
There were many main courses that the curator would love to have tried to make – but was not so interested in eating, such as ‘Calves [sic.] Head Hash’ and ‘Lamprey Pie.’
The Sixth Course
Desserts & Remedies
This case is full of recipes for the sweet things in life as well as getting rid of life’s annoyances. One can learn to make a Custard or a Syllabub, or rid their home of fleas and bad breath.
17. Smith, E. (cook). The compleat housewife; or, Accomplish’d gentlewoman’s companion. London : Printed for R. Ware [and others], 1753.

Call no. TX705.S64 1753*
19. Raffald, Elizabeth. The experienced English housekeeper, for the use and ease of ladies, housekeepers, cooks, &c. Written purely from practice; dedicated to the Hon. Lady Elizabeth Warburton, whom the author lately served as housekeeper : consisting of several hundred original reciepts, most of which never appeared in print. London [i.e. York?] : Printed for A. Millar, W. Law, and R. Cater [i.e. Wilson, Spence, and Mawman?], M,DCC,XCI. [1791].

Call no. TX705.R13 1791*
18. [Cookery manuscript and literary miscellanies]. 1726-1732.

Call no. MS.1950.011

16. Eales, Mary. Mrs. Mary Eales’s receipts. Confectioner to her late Majesty Queen Anne. London : Printed by H. Meere in Black-Fryers, and to be had at Mr. Cooper’s at the Three Pidgeons the lower end of Bedford-Street, near the New Exchange in the Strand, MDCCXVIII. [1718].

Call no. TX705.E11 1718*

15. The Cookery book. [ca 1780?].

Call no. f MS.1990.001

20. Cookery Book from the Cross Family. [1724-1740].

Call no. f MS.1986.002
21. Kidder, Edward. Receipts of pastry & cookery : for the use of his scholars / Edward Kidder ; edited by David E. Schoonover. Iowa City : University of Iowa Press, c1993.

Call no. TX705.K46 1993

23. Glasse, Hannah. The art of cookery, made plain and easy by a lady. By Hannah - The 4th ed., with additions. London : Printed for the author, and sold at the Bluecoat-Boy [etc.]. 1751.

Call no. TX705.G54 1751*

24. Poole, Elenor. Cookery book. 1733-1827.

Call no. MS.2003.001

25. Kidder, Edward. Receipts of pastry and cookery : for the use of his scholars. By Ed. Kidder. Who teacheth at his school on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Wednesdays, in the afternoon, in St. Martin’s Le Grand. And on Thursdays, Fridays, and Saturdays, in the afternoon, at his school next to Furnival’s Inn in Holborn. 1721-1722.

Call no. MS.1953.004

26. Lemery, Louis. A treatise of foods, in general: First, The difference and choice which ought to be made of each sort in particular. Secondly, The good and ill effects produced by them. Thirdly, The principles wherewith they abound. And, fourthly, The time, age and constitution they suit with. To which are added, remarks upon each chapter; wherein their nature and uses are explained, according to the principles of chymistry and mechanism. Written in French ... Now done into English. London : John Taylor, 1704.

Call no. TX351.L55E*

27. Bailey, Nathan. Dictionarium domesticum: being a new and compleat household dictionary : for the use both of city and country. London : Printed for C. Hitch ... C. Davis ... and S. Austen, 1736.

Call no. TX705.B15*
28. A necessary family-book, both for the city and country, in two parts. Containing exact ... directions, for taking and killing all manner of vermine on land and in water ... To which is added, Directions for profitable managing of bees, poultry, pigeons and conies; with instructions for breeding up, and managing cattle … By R.W. gent. London : Printed for Eliz. Harris ..., 1703..

Call no. TX325.N36 1703*

29. Hall, T., cook. The Queen’s royal cookery: or, Expert and ready way for the dressing of all sorts of flesh, fowl, fish : either bak’d, boil’d, roasted, stew’d, fry’d, broil’d, hash’d, frigasied, carbonaded, forc’d, collar’d, sous’d, dry’d, &c., after the best and newest way. With their several sauses and salads. London : Printed for C. Bates, at the Sun and Bible in Gilt-Spur-Street, in Pye-corner: and A. Betteswroth, at the Red Lion on London-Bridge, 1713.

Call no. TX705.H17 1713*
30. Hornyold Family. [Cookery and medical commonplace book]. [1662-1722].

Call no. MS.2012.011

31. The Lady’s companion; or, An infallible guide to the fair sex, containing rules, directions, and observations for their conduct and behaviour through all ages and circumstances of life as virgins, wives, or widows, with directions ... in every kind of cookery. London : Printed for T. Read, 1740.

Call no. TX705.W62 1740*

32. Harrison, Sarah. The house-keeper’s pocket-book, and compleat family cook: containing above twelve hundred curious and uncommon receipts in cookery, pastry, preserving, pickling, candying, collaring, &c., with plain and easy instructions for preparing and dressing every thing suitable for an elegant entertainment, from two dishes to five or ten, &c., and directions for ranging them in their proper order. London : R. Ware, 1755.

Call no. TX705.H32 1755*
33. Kidder, Edward. E. Kidder’s Receipts of pastry and cookery, for the use of his scholars. Who teaches at his school in Queen street near St. Thomas Apostles. On Mondays, Tuesdays, & Wednesdays ... Ladies may be taught at their own houses. [London : s.n., 1720?].

Call no. TX705.K46 1720*
34. Moxon, Elizabeth. English housewifry. Exemplified in above four hundred and fifty receits, giving directions in most parts of cookery. Leeds : Printed by James Lister, and sold by John Swale, at Leeds; S. Birt ... London ..., [1743?].

Call no. TX705.M93 1743*
35. Kettilby, Mary. A collection of above three hundred receipts in cookery, physick and surgery; for the use of all good wives, tender mothers, and careful nurses. By several hands. London : Printed for the executrix of Mary Kettilby; and sold by W. Parker ..., 1734.

Call no. TX705.K43 1734*
36. Mrs. Fisher. The prudent housewife, or, Complete English cook for town and country : being the newest collection of the most genteel, and least expensive recipes in every branch of cookery. London : Printed by T. Sabine, 1800.

Call no. TX705.F53 1800*
37. Charles, Mariabella [Cookery recipes and medical cures]. [ca. 1678].

Call no. MS.1950.009
38. In an eighteenth century kitchen: a receipt book of cookery, 1968; edited, with an introduction, notes and glossary by Dennis Rhodes; with a preface by Beverley Nichols and illustrated by Duncan Grant. London : Cecil and Amelia Woolf, 1968.

Call no. TX705.R47
39. A closet for ladies and gentlewomen, or, The art of preserving, conserving, and candying : vvith the manner how to make divers kindes of sirups, and all kinde of banqueting stuffes : also divers soveraigne medicines and salves for sundry diseases. London: Printed by R.H. for Charles Greene, 1647.

Call no. TX601.C64 1647*
40. The Ladies cabinet enlarged and opened: containing many rare secrets and rich ornaments of several kindes and different uses. Comprized under three general heads. Viz. of: 1. Preserving, conserving, candying, &c. 2. Physick and chirurgery. 3. Cookery and houswifery. Whereunto is added, sundry experiments and choice extractions of waters, oyls, &c., collected and practised, by the late right honorable and learned chymist, the Lord Ruthuen. London: Printed by T.M. for G. Bedell and T. Collins, 1655.

Call no. TX705.L15 1655*
41. The vermin-killer, being a very necessary family-book, containing exact rules and directions for the artificial killing and destroying of all manner of vermin, &c. Rats and mice, Moles, Pismires, Flyes, Fleas & lice, Adders, Snakes, Weasles, Catterpillars, Buggs, Froggs, &c. Whereunto is added the art of taking of all sorts of fish and foul, with many other observations never before extant. London: Printed for Samuel Lee ..., 1680.

Call no. TX325.V52 1680*
A photograph of the display at the Clark Library.
Click the forward (→) button below for descriptions and details of each item.
A photograph of the display at the Clark Library.
Click the forward (→) button below for descriptions and details of each item.
A photograph of the display at the Clark Library.
Click the forward (→) button below for descriptions and details of each item.
22. Smith, Eliza. The compleat housewife: or, Accomplish’d gentlewoman’s companion: : being a collection of upwards of six hundred of the most approved receipts in cookery ... : with copper plates curiously engraven for the regular disposition or placing the various dishes and courses. And also bills of fare for every month in the year. To which is added, a collection of above three hundred family receipts of medicines. London : J. and H. Pemberton ..., 1741.

Call no. TX705.S64 1741*

A photograph of the display at the Clark Library.
Click the forward (→) button below for descriptions and details of each item.
A photograph of the display at the Clark Library.
Click the forward (→) button below for descriptions and details of each item.
A photograph of the display at the Clark Library.
Click the forward (→) button below for descriptions and details of each item.
From the Curator/Chef

For ‘An Exhibition in Six Courses: Testing Recipes from the Clark’s Manuscript Collection,’ I have curated a selection of manuscripts – and, indeed, pace the exhibition’s title, more than a few early printed books – relating to 17th and 18th century cookery. Taking on the idea of the exhibition cases serving as courses in a visual and intellectual meal, the materials are arranged in an order that one might experience them, from diagrams of the proper laying out of a meal to the remedies one might need at the end of the night.

My main interest in selecting books and manuscripts for this exhibition was to explore how the recipes in the Clark’s cookery items translated to my contemporary experience of cooking. I knew that the recipes and cooking process would be quite different than what I am accustomed to, and there was quite a bit to learn when it came to measurements and language.

In terms of research, it was fascinating to learn about mutchkins (a measure of liquid just under a pint), brookes (related to leeks) and manchett (a small, high-quality, loaf of bread). In terms of personal experience, it was a challenge to choose recipes that would not only be of interest as a cook, but also of desirable in terms of my palette. It would be a shame to make anything that would go to waste. In some situations the recipes made a perfectly delicious meal requiring no alteration, while others required intervention in order to make them edible. For instance, the Carrot Soup was a perfect combination of textures and flavors, and inspired me to use turnips far more in my weekly cooking, while the Pottage barely made it to my mouth before it went into the trash.

In addition to the food and drink I tested in my home kitchen, I also enlisted the assistance of Clark scholar and UCLA Ph.D candidate Alex Eric Hernandez to brew an authentic Nottingham Ale from one of our manuscript recipes. We served the resulting brew at the exhibition’s opening event for the enjoyment of all attending.

Photographs and transcriptions of several of the recipes I chose to make are on display in the ‘cases’ here alongside books and manuscripts of similar purpose. The Clark’s offerings draw a relationship between culinary history and the handwritten word that I find very inspiring, and I hope you will as well.

Jennifer Bastian
Visual Resources Specialist
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Recipe 1: Lemmon Brandy (from MS.1950.011)

Take the outer rind of 12 lemmons to a pint of brandy and infuse thereon 15 days then pour it off. Put on three mutchkins of water on the rind it let it stand three days and pour it off to three mutchkins of water. Take 20 ounces of sugar clarified ___ an egg when the syrop is cold mix your brandy together and strain all through a flaning(?) & bolle it, but if you now design for punch take 18 lemmons for a pint of brandy, five mutchkins of water and a pound and a half of sugar finished.

Recipe 2: Common Bisket (from MS.1950.011)

[Oven at 375.] Take a pound of eggs & beat them while they drop like water __ add a pound of sugar by degrees & beat it till it be as thick & white as cream, then take a pound of flower & stir it in as fast as you please & drop it upon papers & search a little sugar upon the top of them, before you put them in the oven.

Recipe 3: Pickell Mushrooms (from MS.1950.009)

Take mushrooms & peel them & put them in water to wash them, then take some water & season it to your taste with salt & little whole pepper, some vinegar for a while – then let them stand til they are cool, then have the pickell cider, which must be 2 parts vinegar & one white wine. Salt cloves mace nutmeg & whole pepper. So put them in the pickell & cover them close.
Recipe 5: Green Pease Soop (from MS.1953.004)

Wipe your peapods and scald ye shells. Strain & pound them in a mortar with scalded parsley, young onions, & a little mint then Soak a French roul boil these together in clear mutton broth a faggot of sweet herbs seasoned with pepper salt & nutmeg then strain it in through a colander put your pottage in a dish put in the middle your larded veal, a forced foul chicken or rabbit, garnish it with scalded parsley & cabbage lettuce.
Recipe 4: Carrot Soup (from MS.2003.001)

Take five or six large carrots well cleaned and four or five turnips sliced very thin, four or five heads of celery, two onions, cut small, put them into a large stew-pan into which you have put a good lump of butter, put all these things into the butter with some salt, set your stew-pan over a slow fire and cover it close, when, beginning to fry stir it well and often and keep it close covered as it dries put in a little cold water and that often till it comes to a pulp, which when it does you may put in broth and let it boil some time, then rub it through a sieve, you add to it some celery and small boil’d tender, you must have the crusts of French rolls to put into your soup after it is strained off -

Recipe 6: A Receipt to Make Pottage (from MS.2003.001)

Take a large [?] of beef, cut it in four or five pieces with a knuckell of veale or any other fresh meat, let it boil five hours or lounger in an indifferent quantity of water about a gallon, putt in a fagett of sweet herbs as time – sweet marjoram and winter savory, then in one other pot boil two or three quarts of peas to pape ore pulp with half a pound of bacon to give it a good relish and being well boiled strain it through a collander and keep it till your broth bee almost ready then take three handfuls of sorrel, a little brooke [leek?] one onion chopped small, and one handful of parsley chopped small. Stew this upon ___ about a quarter of an hour till the herbs are soft in at small quantity of the beef broth when all this is redy and boiled enough take a quantity of the beef broth a quart or two putt to it the herbs when they are soft pulp of peas and mix altogether and let stew for a quarter of an hour keeping of it stirring then take slices of manchett about the quantity of one manchett and putt into it and at last putt in a shoe of buttor., a little pepper and a handful of salt it must be seasoned well at first you must judge of the whole to the satisfaction of your taste and then serve it up to the table.

Recipe 7: Syllabub (from MS.1950.011)

Take a pint of white wine or Claret & as much of sweet milk or cream being warm skink in your wine if you please milk it from the cow in your wine & then put in sugar & cannel upon it.

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An Exhibition in Six Courses
Testing Recipes from the Clark’s Manuscript Collection

Photographs by Jennifer Bastian (
Prezi by Mike Garabedian (
Gustav, the Sous-Chef
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