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Progressivism in America
Transcript of Progressivism in America
US History 202
Period 2 Welcome to the Progressive Era ... the era of realization and acknowledgement ... the era of action and change ... the era of an awakening ... the era of involvement and development ... the era representative of the creation of a society built upon the equality and prosperity of the American people By the late 1800's, America has been tranformed into a propserous world power by rapid poltical and economic growth. America has abadonned its mentality of inaction and is now rendered a world power by imperialstic intent and the embedment of the ideology of the superiority of the American race into the minds of the American people. What directly follows the recent decades of growth is the awakening to the injustices of American society and the development of laws as applicable to the betterment of American welfare. American Society Muckrakers Muckraker's Ultimate Goal American Government Election of 1900 1901 Theodore Roosevelt Muckrakers played an essential role in the Progressive
Age of America, for their ultimate effect was the exposure of the corrupt and disappointing truths of American lives as influenced by economic and physical circumstances created and controlled by major corporations and industries and American tradition. The muckraker's ultimate cause was to expose reality of the flaws of American society and American industry and to bring about greater awareness and reform. Some muckrakers were successful... other were not. Even so, muckrakers left the foundation upon which greater equality, safety, and opportunity could be equally distributed amongst the American people. Samuel Hopkins Adams, a successful muckraker, wrote the Great American Fraud, prompting for the creation and passing of th Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 as per the expression of the social and economic flaws of the American people at the time. Adams also targeted his efforts at revealing the reality behind patent medicines, writing that they were actually detrimental rather than helpful to people. It is from these efforts of Adams and other like muckrakers such as Ray Stannard Baker that we today have a list of ingredients which accompanies every packaged food or product. John Muir of California was not successful in with his conservationist aims.John Muir was a muckraker who was amongst the first to actively pursue conservation of wildlife and resources as with his argument pertaining to Hetch Hetchy Valley of the Yosemite National Park. A unique feature on earth made over millions of years of time, the valley was the source of natural beauty and was home to hundreds of living plant and animal organisms. Muir argued that it was this natural beauty which captivated the interests of many Americans. Nonetheless, there was a more elementary necessity at hand, the need to provide water to the inhabitants of the neighboring city of San Francisco, a need which was held superior to the potential benefits of preserving the Hetch Hetchy Valley. John Muir was unsuccessful in his effort of preserving the valley as it converted into a reservoir and buried under 200 feet of water. The reservoir still exists today near the city of San Francisco, California.
"Speak softly and carry a big stick; you will go far." Increasing Involvement - Monopolizing businesses and corporations control econony and the production and distribution of products - Six times as many children are working now as were working twenty years ago - Industries and trusts are unregulated by the federal government - Laissez faire government is detrimental - Wealth is unequally distributed; not every individual is given the opportunity to become the greatest he or she can - Suffrage is not extended to women - People are unaware of the composition of their food products - Patent Medicines are distributed as curealls for many different symptoms; Patent Medicines actually contain opium, cocaine, alcohol, and other drugs. These "Medicines are even given to children - Graduates from Harvard University as summa cum laude with Phi Beta Kappa honors - Raised in a wealthy new york family - Ranch owner and cowboy of dakota President McKinley is renominated Republicans: McKinley and Theodore Roosevelt
Democrats: William Jennings Bryan and Adlai Stevenson Gunboat Diplomacy New Freedom and the Square Deal - Major campaigning issue : independence of imperialist territories gained and controlled by the United States Outcome:
McKinley wins election; Roosevelt becomes vice president McKinley is assasinated - Charismatic personality - Former governer of New York State - Qualified for Presidency Theodore Roosevelt becomes 26th President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt employs a new strategy as to the disposition of the United States in foreign affairs. Gunboat diplomacy, as it is called, was the manner in which the United States presided over its lesser civilized and advanced territories, a manner which prompted for the promotion of peace alongside with the potential to engage in violent actions when necessary. Spanish - American War The New American Empire Having won the Spanish-American war, the United States attains the new territories of Cuba, Puerto , and the Philippines as relinquished from Spain's control in the Treaty of Paris of 1898. A war provoked by Yellow Journalism and its cause of gaining support amongst the common people for a war that would yield the execution of imperialist goals and actions, the Spanish - American lasts ten months, ten months which yield a result which forever changes the United States and its dominance over foreign lands One of the most profound issues of the Progressive Era was the involvement of the federal government in the regulation of trusts and monopolizing industries and businesses. In concordance with Roosevelt’s “square deal” and to the effort of creating a better American in which every individual is given the equal opportunity to make of himself the greatest he can, the United States government becomes more involved in regulation of monopolizing industries and organizations. By directly controlling these sources of power, personal interests can be eliminated such that opportunity and representation is distributed amongst all of the individuals of the American race. Roosevelt sees the need for corporations to be watched and supervised by the American public. The economic and political powers are subjects of the people and must therefore yield themselves before the American people and their need for promoted human welfare. Roosevelt proposes the centralization of corporations and industries which have a common goal, a goal of providing for the better good of the majority of the American people as a whole. Wealth and health standards need to be taken from the concentration of a few and put in the hands of the majority of the American people. Election of 1904 Republican Party: Theodore Roosevelt
Democratic Party: Alton Parker Major campaigning issue: eecution of progressive intentions and the breakdown of trusts Outcome: Theordore Roosevelt is reelected The Three C's - Control of Corporations
- Consumer Protection
- Conservation of Natural Resouces Anthracite Coal Strike 1902 With the Pennsylvania strike of some 140,000 exploited workers came the demand for a 20% pay increase and a decrease in the ten hour work day. Factories and schools were forced to shutdown in the absence of coal. Met with uncooperative mine owners, Roosevelt threatens to occupy the mines with federal troops, yielding the forced negotiation of a 10% pay increase and a nine hour work day. Elkins Act of 1903 The Elkins Act is enforced for the equality of the American people. Before its enforcement, famers had to pay more than other valued customers, therefore being deprived of the equal opportunity to sell their products. The Elkins Act :
- enforced the publication of uniform rates
- stated that both the railroad and the customer would be liable for any violation of the law Hepburn Act of 1906 The Hepburn Act strengthens the Elkins Act of 1902 - Give the Interstate Commerce Commission more control; gives the ICC the ability to set maximum rates
Requires the adoption of uniform accounting practices Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 With its creation having been provoked from the criticism of muckrakers like Samuel Adams, the Pure Food and Drug Act forever changes the production and distribution of food throughout the United States. The Pure Food and Drug Act:
- yields the creation of the Food and Drug Adminstration
- requires the possession of a prescription before acquiring medicines
- requires the labeling of individual ingredients on medicines Election of 1908 Republican Party: William Howard Taft
Democratic Party: William Jennigs Bryan Outcome: William Howard Taft becomes the 27th president of the United States William Howard Taft - Graduates second in his class at Yale
- Distinguished lawyer and judge
- Trusted by Roosevelt as an administrator in the Philippines and Cuba
- Lacking in charisma possessed by Roosevelt
- Insensitive to public opinion
- Passive to the actions and disposition of Congress Dollar Diplomacy Taft's Dollar Diplomacy was largely the employment of an economical means of expanding the United States power over foreign countries. Dollar Diplomacy was the negotiation of power for the arrangement of American investments in foreign interests. Roosevelt the Trust Buster In his 7 1/2 years in office, Roosevelt breaks down some 44 trusts. Payne-Aldrich Tariff Act Largely ignored by Roosevelt, the tariff on incoming goods entering the United States was addressed by Taft, who supported the lower tariffs. The act lowerd certain tariffs while increasing others. because the bill increased the price of paper, Progressive representatives were angered as they were less able to support their cause through the publication of newspapers and magazines. Election of 1912 Republican Party: William Taft
Democratic Party: Woodrow Wilson
Progressive Party: Theodore Roosevelt
Socialist Party: Eugene Debs Outcome: Woodrow Wilson is elected, becoming the 28th president of the United States Major campaigning issues: trusts, women's suffrage, and tariffs Woodrow Wilson - Former professor of history
- Former politician
- First president of one of the seceded southern states to reach the White House and the Presidency
- Believed that Congress needed the President's leadership to properly function
- Inflexible on the idea of morality and rrighteousness
- Moral Diplomacy Wilson's Promise A believer in New Nationalism, Wilson promised to attack the Triple Wall of Privelage New Nationalism and the Square Deal Underwood Tariff Act of 1913 The Underwood Tariff was part of Wilson's assailment on the Triple Wall of Privelage, an attack which: - lowers tariff rates throughout the United States
- allows the United States to collect an income tax Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 The Clayton Antitrust Act clarifies the effect of the Sherman Antitrust Act, yieding: - the prohbition of exclusive sales contracts
- the legalization of peaceful strikes and boycotts
- the prohibition of one company attaining another's shares Banking System Wilson creates: - A federal reserve system with 12 different branches to be used individual in different regions of the United States 16th Amendment 17th Amendment 18th Amendment "The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census or enumeration" Establishes the collection of a federal income tax The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures " After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited" " The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex" 19th Amendment *First election in which third party outvotes a major political party Works Cited Kennedy, David M., Lizabeth Cohen, and Thomas Andrew Bailey. The American Pageant: a History of the Republic. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 2006. Print.
"Election of 1908." United States History. Web. 07 Mar. 2011. <http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h878.html>.
"Election of 1912." Duke University Libraries - Home. Web. 07 Mar. 2011. <http://library.duke.edu/exhibits/sevenelections/elections/1912/index.html>.
America, 1900. "The Progressive Era, 1896-1916." Academic American History. Web. 07 Mar. 2011. <http://www.academicamerican.com/progressive/topics/progressive.html>.
Foreign Relations with Mexico America and the Progressive Era Yielded from the capturing of a small group of American sailors in Mexico's Tampico seaport, the impulsive conflict between the United States and Mexico plagued Wilson and his disposition to attack. Wilson ordered the American navy to seize the port at Vera Cruz as the conflict escalated, a conflict which brought to mediation by Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. The intervention of these three Latin American powers only worsened relations with Mexico as individuals such as Pancho Villa led an attack on American citizens, killing 16 traveling on a train in Northern Mexico and another 19 in the border town of Columbus, New Mexico. An American force was thereafter organized to invade Mexico and to chase down Pancho Villa, a task which would be called off by more pressing issues which needed the presence of all United States troops at home. By the early 1920's America no longer presented itself to its people as a country which allowed monopolizing corporations to control the economy or the life of the average citizen, for it had
undergone a rapid development and expression of the need to ensure equal opportuniy and better welfare for the American people as a whole. The Progressive Era is that which produced
better rights and equality for American workers. The Progressive Era is that which provided the American people with the ability to make the best of themselves based on their abilities and not on their status. The Progressive Era was that which yielded Women's suffrage and the right to peacefully participate in strikes. The Progressive Era ultimately separated the American people from their oppressive bonds of obligation and explotation and ushered in the time of protest and change made for the purpose of benefiting the American people and the generations to come. It is the early 20th century and women have become more and more expressive as the attachment to traditional values has steadily been questions and weakened. Women argue that, when compared to men of unkempt morality and social behaviors, women were, have been, and are more representative of the betterment of the American life and are thus more competent to represent the United States in its best interests. Women are much more influential today than they have ever been before as men take into consideration their whishes and judgments more and more. Because women are representative of the household, a happy family, and the future adults of America, women only want what is best for their family and thus serve as a force by which immoral and illogical voters are balanced out. Thus, allowing women to vote would benefit the American people as a whole. Women's Suffrage It is 1906 and six times as many children are working now as were working twenty years ago. These children, forced unto the grim and degrading conditions and circumstances of hard labor, endure a life without an education, a life without any higher function, a life robbed of its childhood. These children, who often die or become ill after four years of working at mills, are truly the subjects of the ironic action of American interests regarding industrialization and the international competition for world power. America has forced upon its own native race the conditions from which it sought an escape, the conditions imposed by Great Britain, and the unrelenting perpetuation of child labor shows no sign of stopping here Child Labor