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School Project

Lucas Freaza

on 5 February 2014

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Transcript of Africa-Sahara

Africa Regions-Sahara
Beatriz Moreira, Marianna Lima and Lucas Freaza 8B
During this presentation, you will understand even more about what is happening in Africa, more specifically the Sahara. We are going to talk about the people, geography, history, government and culture about this region.
You will be quizzed in the end of the presentation, so pay attention!
The Tuareg people live very religiously, having Islam and Muslim affect their lives in clothing, rites, and last but not least, the holidays.
Your social status and your political power was based one your maternal ancestors.
One of the rites of passage in that place is that when a boy is
9 years old
, he has to travel during 6 months through 400 miles in the Sahara Desert

on a camel to get salt in Bilma.
In this journey, the boy will only eat
porridge of millet
goat's cheese
dates with water
until he reaches the destination, which is where he will get salt to sell in Zinder, so if he returns if the salt he will become a real man, otherwise he will just be treated as a child as before.
The Tuareg people celebrate Muslim and non-religious holidays, such as: Ganni (Prophet Mohammed’s birthday), Tabaski (Abraham’s story to save his son), Niger Independence Day and Niger Republic Day.

Imzhad instrument
Blue veil
"Africa-Sahara." PBS. Educational Broadcasting Corporation, n.d. Web. 28 Aug 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/africa/explore/sahara/sahara_overview_lo.html>.

Project , Joshua. "Western Sahara– People Groups." Joshua Project. U.S. Center for World Mission, n.d. Web. 27 Aug 2013. <http://joshuaproject.net/countries.php?rog3=WI>.

Milin, Rozenn. "New words in Tamasheq." SOROSORO. SOROSORO © Copyright 2009, n.d. Web. 27 Aug 2013. <http://www.sorosoro.org/en/new-words-in-tamasheq>.

"Tour the Exibit." California Academy of Science. Official radio sponsor of Afrci one continent many worlds, 09 Jan 2000. Web. 20 Aug 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/africa/explore/sahara/sahara_overview_lo.html>.

Directury, Altius. " Sahara Desert." Altius Directory. Copyright © 2006-2013, Altius Directory., n.d. Web. 29 Aug 2013. <http://www.altiusdirectory.com/Travel/sahara-desert.html>.

Zimmermann, Kim. "The Sahara: Facts, Climate and Animals of the Desert ." Live Science. Live Siece, 12 Sep 2012. Web. 28 Aug 2013. <http://www.livescience.com/23140-sahara-desert.html>.

Prososki, Lisa. "LESSON PLAN: LIFE IN THE SAHARA." PBS NEWSHOUR EXTRA. Copyright © 2013 MacNeil-Lehrer Productions All Rights Reserved, 25 Mar 2009. Web. 27 Aug 2013. <http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/teachers/lessonplans/world/sahara.html>.

"Camel." San Diego Zoo Animals. San Diego Zoo Global, n.d. Web. 29 Aug 2013. <http://animals.sandiegozoo.org/animals/camel>.

Clarke, Thurston, Johannes Nicolaisen, and Anne Rochegude. "Tuareg." Countries and Their Cultures. Advameg, Inc., n.d. Web. 20 Aug 2013. <http://www.everyculture.com/wc/Mauritania-to-Nigeria/Tuareg.html>.

Cummisk, Gary. "Desert Odyssey." Geography & Anthropology. Dickinson State University, n.d. Web. 28 Aug 2013. <http://www2.dsu.nodak.edu/users/cummiskclasses/new_page_18.htm>.

Arnaud, Contreras, dir. Daily Phrases in Tamasheq. Sorosoro TV, 2011. Film. 3 Sep 2013. <
are an ethnic group, and they are unique people. Their language is really interesting. The clothes they wear are typical clothes of the desert. Besides the Tuaregs, there are other groups with different languages, customs, and traditions. Moreover, they have weddings that last for seven days and camel races, things that only the region of the Sahara has.
The major ethnic group from the Sahara are the Tuaregs. Its origins are mostly a mystery. This group first appeared in the Sahara as nomads. Herders of camels, goats, sheep. But then they became known for a lucrative job, the trans- Saharan trade caravans. For centuries they did this, the caravans trading gold, salt, ivory, and slaves to the Arabs in North Africa. They were known for good warriors, and experts camel riders. After time, their role changed because trains and trucks were better then camels for trades. There are 11 ethnic groups in Western Sahara, like Arabs, Spaniards, Saharawis, Regeibats, Moors, Izarguiens, Imragens, Deafs.
The language we chose to focus on, is the Tuaregs’ language, but there are other languages like Arabic, Moroccan Spoken, Hassaniyya, Spanish, Tachelhit. The Tuaregs speak Tamasheq, that is a language of Berber, a north Africa language. They call themselves "people of the Tamacheq language". Their dates from the fifth century are written in a phonetic alphabet called tifinagh. It is one of Africa's few distinct alphabets. It can be written from right to left, left to right, or from top to bottom. These people are not monolingual. They mostly speak Hausa, the dominant language of an ethnic group. Songhay, a West African language, and, French, that language of the colonial era. The Tamasheq is not used to express feelings, for example, if you ask "Are you enjoying your meal?", they wouldn't answer.
Examples of words:

Elluzegh- I am hungry

Effudegh- I am thirsty

Riqqim- I love you

Karhabet- car

Elmotir- engine

Amaway- mobile phone

Tena saqlet- watch

Kamira- camera

Sinima- cinema

Some of the places in the Sahara that we have been studying are
, Tunisia, and

The Sahara has the record of heat temperature
degrees Fahrenheit. On the daytime, the high reach
degrees Fahrenheit, but at night the temperature can be
below zero
The Sahara’s rivers and streams are irregular or seasonal (the water can be high, low, or even dry completely in some seasons).
The desertification (when all the water dries up) can affect the population’s life, because they have to move from place to place and change their lifestyles.
With this, people suffer hunger and more than 5 million children are dying of hunger each year.
The dry-subtropical climate has scalding summers, cold winters, two rainy seasons, and annual high temperature. Rainfall is in the month of August.
The dry tropical climate has an annual rainfall of 5 inches and snow in higher altitudes.

For protection, the Tuaregs wear loose cotton clothes. The layers keep the sweat near to the body, so it evaporates more slowly, keeping the body cooler. Men wear a shirt with pants under an indigo robe. Women always wear clothes to cover themselves, a long piece of cloth used like skirts around the waist. On top, they wear two blouses. In addition, they wear large indigo head cloths. However, when they traded products in the desert, they also use a blue veil to cover themselves.
According to history...
The Tuareg people came from the North African Berbers that lived in the region of Fezzan Libya 1400 years ago.
Then, people expanded little by little and begun trading products, such as gold, ivory, salt and slaves, which made them get really rich.
The Tuareg people traveled in caravans with their faces covered by blue veils, so they were called
“Blue Men”
. However, in the twentieth century,
came to the Sahara and colonized the Tuareg people that lived in there because of exploration and military expedition.
At the end, the French people prohibited the trades in the desert, ending with the main commercial activity of the Tuaregs.

Ivory is the hard white substance that makes up the elephant's fangs
The Sahara has many countries, but most of them are democratic. The countries are politically divided in:
-Democratic and Popular Republic of Algeria
- Republic of Chad
- Arab Republic of Egypt
-Socialist People's Libyan
- Arab Jamahiriya
-Republic of Mali
-Republic of Mauritania
-Kingdom of Morocco
-Republic of Niger
-Republic of Sudan
-Republic of Tunisia
-Western Sahara.
There are not any actual conflicts between these countries, however Egypt will probably go to a civil war, but nothing is proved yet. The reason this might happen is the division of opposition groups and the religious government (Islam).
How to make a taguella
Regs are areas of sand and black, red or white gravel!
Ergs are sand areas!
Hammadas are elevated places of rock and stone!
Chotts are depressions that fill with salt!
Sand is not the only thing on a desert. It is mostly made of plains of rocks, gravel and sand, each of the Sahara’s places, has its own name and characteristics. Mountains are found in Algeria, Libya, Chad, and Morocco. Sahara's major source of water is the Nile. In the variety of topography, we can find regs, ergs, oasis, hammadas, chotts, and wadis.

Wadis are temporary water sources!
Oasis is an area in which vegetation and water are found, most of the Sahara population lives on it.
Thanks for your attention during the presentation!
Get a piece of scrap paper or use your electronic device to answer the following questions (2-3 sentences):

1) What does a boy have to do when he turns 9 years old? (2-3 sentences)

2) How does religion affect people's clothing? (2-3 sentences)

3) What is the Sahara's largest source of water? (1 sentence)

4) "Blue men" is a term used since a long time ago by the people in the desert to describe the Taureg people. Based on your knowledge, how were the commercial activities like at that time?

5) Is most of the Sahara democratic or not? Mention at least 1 place that is or isn't democratic to support your answer.
In the desert
Camel races
The Tuareg people have many traditional beliefs and practices that are still alive, however Muslim and Islam are also really strong religions that most inhabitants in the Sahara believe.
The Tuaregs used to wear a
veil in the desert not only for protection from the heat and wind, but also because they believed that the evil spirits caused diseases by going inside your mouth.
A religious rite of passage is that one day before the boy turns a man, he is given a name in Tamacheq. On the next day, the boy's hair is cut off to separate him from the spirit world and he receives a name in Arab from his father and from a holy man. In order to celebrate that, people kill a goat and have feasts.
Any time the people in Sahara celebrate some event, such as a holiday or even a ritual, they will do feasts with music, dancing and the famous camel races.
The Tuareg's food is based goats' cheese, such as
dried dates with milk
corn porridge
. Meat and couscous were kept for special occasions only, such as rites of passage or a holiday.
The most popular food for the Tuaregs was called
, a thick crepe eaten with butter or dried tomatoes with onions.
The Tuareg people's music is similar to the Arabs' and the Berbers' music and it's played by women in most of the times, who know how to play the imzhad (an instrument similar to a violin).
The Tuareg people’s art was used a long time ago in there to represent animals, such as the
, which represents their past, their culture.
Get a whiteboard and try to write down the name of all the countries in the Sahara region of Africa!
You have 5 minutes!
Turn to your partner and tell him or her which part of the culture you would like to experience and why! You have 5 minutes!
As you have seen the presentation, pick at least 2 facts you would like to present:
-Rite of passage (religious)
-Rite of passage (traditional)
-Camel races
-Hot days and cold nights
-Covering face from evil spirits that cause diseases
-Sahara was colonized by France, ending trades
-Camels' ability not to drink water for days
-Elephants' multifunctional snout
-Weddings that last for seven days
-Trading products in the desert
The Nile river, the largest water source in the world!
Is it a
or an

As fast as a horse?
The largest mammal on Earth?
Able to spend days without drinking or eating?
The animal with a really helpful snout?
Able to carry 90 kg for 20 miles?
In prehistoric drawings found in the Sahara, there are images of giraffes, elephants and lions, and once a
Sahara. Animal life is based on the natural selection, so the ones that can survive heat and lack of water, will survive. Rodents, snakes and scorpions live there.
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