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The Odyssey's Influence in Art and Literature
Transcript of The Odyssey's Influence in Art and Literature
There gloom the dark, broad seas. My mariners,
Souls that have toil’d, and wrought, and thought with me—
That ever with a frolic welcome took
The thunder and the sunshine, and opposed
Free hearts, free foreheads—you and I are old;
Old age hath yet his honour and his toil;
Death closes all: but something ere the end,
Some work of noble note, may yet be done,
Not unbecoming men that strove with Gods.
The lights begin to twinkle from the rocks:
The long day wanes: the slow moon climbs: the deep
Moans round with many voices. Come, my friends,
’Tis not too late to seek a newer world. Longing Telemachus (8:00 a.m.; the Tower; ---; theology; white,
gold; heir; narrative [young]). Setting is the Martello Tower at Sandycove where Stephen Dedalus (age 22) and Buck Mulligan (a medical student) live.
Homeric correspondences--Stephen can be seen as Telemachus, son of Odysseus, and Mulligan could correspond to Antinous, one of Penelope's suitors, who took over Odysseus's palace and tried to usurp his (and consequently, Telemachus's) role. (Rickard) The Odyssey in Literature It little profits that an idle king,
By this still hearth, among these barren crags,
Match’d with an aged wife, I mete and dole
Unequal laws unto a savage race,
That hoard, and sleep, and feed, and know not me.
I cannot rest from travel: I will drink
Life to the lees: All times I have enjoy’d
Greatly, have suffer’d greatly, both with those
That loved me, and alone, on shore, and when
Thro’ scudding drifts the rainy Hyades
Vext the dim sea: I am become a name;
For always roaming with a hungry heart
Much have I seen and known; cities of men
And manners, climates, councils, governments,
Myself not least, but honour’d of them all;
And drunk delight of battle with my peers,
Far on the ringing plains of windy Troy. I am a part of all that I have met;
Yet all experience is an arch wherethro’
Gleams that untravell’d world whose margin fades
For ever and forever when I move.
How dull it is to pause, to make an end,
To rust unburnish’d, not to shine in use!
As tho’ to breathe were life! Life piled on life
Were all too little, and of one to me
Little remains: but every hour is saved
From that eternal silence, something more,
A bringer of new things; and vile it were
For some three suns to store and hoard myself,
And this gray spirit yearning in desire
To follow knowledge like a sinking star,
Beyond the utmost bound of human thought. "Joyce's Ulysses is a novel of eighteen "episodes," all set in Dublin, Ireland, between 8:00 a.m. and 3:00 am, June 16-17, 1904. The three main characters are a young school teacher and aspiring writer named Stephen Dedalus (the main character of A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man), a middle-aged Jewish advertising salesman named Leopold Bloom, and Leopold's wife, Molly Bloom. During the composition of Ulysses Joyce compiled a working outline or "schema" indicating the title of each episode (each title taken from some character or incident in Homer's Odyssey), the approximate time and place of its setting, and, for most of the episodes, the bodily organ, the "art," the color, the symbol, and the "technic" (or technique) significant to each episode, as well as some of the correspondences between characters in Ulysses and in Homer's Odyssey. In the schema Joyce also divided the book into three main sections, the "Telemachia"--episodes 1-3--the "Odyssey"--episodes 4-15--and the "Nostos"--episodes 16-18." (Rickard) The Odyssey in Popular Culture "Howard Clarke summarizes those qualities which make our Odyssey what it is: "The Odyssey is broad and inclusive: it is an epic poem, not in the Iliad's way with men and nations massed in the first conflict of East and West, but epic in its comprehension of all conditions of men--good and bad, young and old, dead and alive--and all qualities of life--subhuman, human and superhuman, perilous and prosperous, familiar and fabulous" (Jones 326). "As Jasper Griffin points out in his discussion of the "after-life" of the Odyssey (1987, p. 99), the popularity of Homeric poems is something of an anomaly: most epic works are popular for a time, then fade away into obscurity, only to be read by scholars and specialists. One of the things that makes the Odyssey so enjoyable to read is that it is full of people we can relate to, unlike so many of the traditional stories handed down over the centuries. There is a little bit of Odysseus, of Penelope, of Telemachus, of Eumaeus (and, to be honest, probably some of the suitors as well) in each of us. These are people we can relate to: people we might conceivably meet in real life, on the street, in our homes, at school, where we work, etc." (Spires 323). "The Odyssey, on the other hand, would be something like Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro: it has a definite moral message, but that message is conveyed through humorous means, on a human scale, with plenty of mistaken identities and other plot twists" (Spires 324). Temptation Immortality Peter Levi accurately sums up the Odyssey's merits and attractions when he says: "What is refreshing in the Odyssey is its expression of simple and vigorous human appetities. What is more deeply satisfying in it is deeply entangled in the miseries and dangers of the long story, the sadness of Odysseus and the terrible momentum of his home-coming, lit, as it were, by the lightening-strokes of Zeus. One would be justified, perhaps, in reading this long poem only for its surface brilliance and variety. But at a deeper level the satisfaction of the Odyssey is hard to disentangle from the recurring motifs and images that are mirrors of its meaning. Men are foolish, strangers are dangerous, the anger of the sea is obscure and implacable, Zeus is hard (Pelican History of Greek Literature, 1985, p. 42). Survival Sadness Surprise By Matthew Bruneel Push off, and sitting well in order smite
The sounding furrows; for my purpose holds
To sail beyond the sunset, and the baths
Of all the western stars, until I die.
It may be that the gulfs will wash us down:
It may be we shall touch the Happy Isles,
And see the great Achilles, whom we knew.
Tho’ much is taken, much abides; and tho’
We are not now that strength which in old days
Moved earth and heaven, that which we are, we are;
One equal temper of heroic hearts,
Made weak by time and fate, but strong in will
To strive, to seek, to find, and not to yield. Works Cited
Böcklin, Arnold. Odysseus und Kalypso. 1883. Kunstmuseum, Basel, Switzerland. Wikimedia Commons. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.
Cream. “Tale Of Brave Ulysses.” Youtube. Youtube, 3 Nov. 2007. Web. 6 Dec. 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u8hLc_nqx8g>.
Hayez, Francesco. Ulisse alla corte di Alcinoo. 1815. Galleria Nazionale di Capodimonte, Naples. Wikimedia Commons. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.
“Intro.” Ulysses 31. 1 Oct. 1986. Youtube. Web. 6 Dec. 2010. <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OZ4c1X5ene8>.
Jones, Peter V. Epics for Students. Ed. Marie Lazzari. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, n.d. 326-327. Print. Excerpt from Introduction. The Odyssey. By Homer. Trans. E. V. Rieu. N.p.: Penguin Classics, 1991. xi-lii.
Lastman, Pieter. Odysseus and Nausicaa. 1619. Alte Pinakothek, Munich. Wikimedia Commons. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.
Lord Tennyson, Alfred. “Ulysses.” 1842. English Poetry III: From Tennyson to Whitman. Ed. Charles W. Eliot. Vol. 42. New York: P.F. Collier and Son, 1914. N. pag. The Harvard Classics. Bartleby.com. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.
Mromsennis. Homer in the Movies--O Brother, Where Art Thou. Teachertube.com. Teachertube, 1 Jan. 2010. Web. 6 Dec. 2010. <http://www.teachertube.com/viewVideo.php?video_id=153294&title=The__Odyssey>. Rickard, John. “A Brief Synopsis of Joyce’s Ulysses.” English 326--Seminar in James Joyce. Bucknell, Fall 2002. Web. 6 Dec. 2010. .
Rider Painter. Odysseus and his men blinding Polyphemus. 560 B.C.E. Bibliothèque nationale de France, Paris. Wikimedia Commons. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.
Spires, Michael J. “Criticism.” 1997. Epics for Students. Ed. Marie Lazzari. Vol. 1. Detroit: Gale, n.d. 323-326. Print. 2 vols.
Symphony X. “The Odyssey.” youtube.com. Youtube, 30 Aug. 2008. Web. 6 Dec. 2010. .
Wall Painting of Ulysses and the Sirens. Mid 1st Century AD. British Museum, London. British Museum. Web. 6 Dec. 2010.
Waterhouse, John William. Circe Offering the Cup to Odysseus. 1891. Oldham Art Gallery, Oldham, UK. Wikimedia Commons. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.
- - -. Ulysses and the Sirens. 1891. National Gallery of Victoria, Melbourne, Australia. JW Waterhouse. Web. 4 Dec. 2010. The End Brief Synopsis of The Odyssey Composed by Homer in about 850 BC.
Epic poem that origially existed only in oral form.
Tells about Odysseus' adventures as he returns from the Trojan War.
Odysseus must overcome many obstacles before returning to his home island of Ithaca.
His wife Penelope and his son Telemachus have been waiting for his return.
Odysseus' final challenge is to defeat the 108 suitors who have tried to marry Penelope in his absence. Question: What elements of the Romantic era do you see in this version of the Odyssey? Question: How else would you like to see the Odyssey portrayed or utilized? Activator: Can you think of any examples of the Odyssey's influence in modern culture? Prohibition in the 1930s Thesis Statement: Prohibition led to an organized
crime structure that is still powerful today. Prohibition Thesis: Prohibition promoted
organized crime which still has a pervasive impact on our society today.