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Classical Approaches to Organizational Management - Machine Metaphor, Henri Fayol, Max Weber, Frederick Winslow Taylor

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Derick Downey

on 6 February 2014

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Transcript of Classical Approaches to Organizational Management - Machine Metaphor, Henri Fayol, Max Weber, Frederick Winslow Taylor

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Henri Fayol
Henri Fayol
(1900 - 1925)
"Max" Weber
(1904 - 1920)
Frederick Winslow Taylor
(1901 - 1915)
Pre-Industrial
Industrial
VS.
Usefulness of Metaphors
Are they?
For what?
Why not?
When useful?
When not?
How decide?
Flour (Goals)
Communication (Water)
Yeast (People)
Flour (People)
Communication (Water)
Yeast (Goals)
(lol trolled you)
The 8 Metaphors of Organization
M
a
c
H
n
e
I
metaphor
specialization
standardization
predictable
(replaceability)
(every part has its function)
(rules govern)
from Gareth Morgan's
Images of Organization
(2009)
drawing by Venkatesh Rao from ribbonfarm.com
useful
- encouraging the generation of practical
approaches toward organizational creation and maintenance
(Miller, 2009, pp. 17-18)
Classical Approaches to
Organizational Management
Henri Fayol
(1841-1925)
"Max" Weber
(1864-1920)
Frederick Winslow Taylor
(1856-1915)
Classical Management
Scientific Management
Bureaucracy
WHERE WHEN WHAT WHO?!?!
(UH-REE)
(FAY-OH)
Born 1841 to lower-middle class, died 1925
Went to "mining school" from 17 to 19
Hired by Commentry-Fourchambault Company
Four Periods of Life
1st Period:
19 to 31 years old (1860-1872)
Engineer of a group of Commentry pits
Addressed mining problems (e.g., fire hazards)
Subordinate executive
2nd Period:
31 to 47 years old (1872-1888)
Director of a group of pits
Concerned with geological problems of area; factors determining life of pits
Developed a theory on deltas
3rd Period:
47 to 77 years old (1888-1918)
Directeur Général of entire company, 30 years
picture source: http://peerawatdba.blogspot.com/2012/09/henri-fayol.html
picture source: http://www.tablet.noticiasnet.mx/oaxaca/184110-administradores-relegados
Before appointment:
Company nearly bankrupt
No dividend paid in 3 years
2 metallurgical works, both heavy losses
2 coal plants, both near exhaustion
After appointment:
Closed 1 metallurgy plant, other became leading special steels producer
Purchased 2 new coal fields, 1 required "all the skill of his engineers... and all his own scientific genius and practical sense to wring success from" (Urwick, 1949, p. vii).
In 1900, purchased another coal field
Company achieved great financial success
4th Period:
77 to 85 years old (1918-1925)
Founded Centre of Administrative Studies
Presided over weekly meetings attended by eminent "writers, philosophers, men of action, engineers and soldiers, officials, and industrialists" (Urwick, 1949, p. viii).
Developed a large, authoritative literature used by schools and the military
picture source: http://bicentenaire2016.mines-stetienne.fr/content/987-henri-fayol-visionnaire-moderne
Tried to "persuade government to pay some attention to principles of administration" (p. viii)
1921, L'Incapacité Administrative de l'État—Ies Postes et Télégraphes
Spoke to many prestigious assemblies
1916 - Administration industrielle et générale
1930 - First English translation
Was investigating the French tobacco industry (monopoly) at the time of his death
Henri Fayol's
THEORY OF
Classical
5 Elements of Management
15 Principles of Management
Management
5 Elements
Management
1. Prévoyance
(anticipation; planning)
2. Organizing
3. Command
4. Coordination
5. Control
of
15 Principles
Management
of
Miller (2009) groups the principles into 4 sets:
Organizational
Structure
6 Principles of
Organizational
Structure
3 Principles of
Organizational
Power
3 Principles of
Organizational
Attitude
3 Principles of
Organizational
Reward
1. Scalar of Command
2. Unity of Command
3. Unity of Direction
4. Division of Labor
5. Order
6. Span of Control
6
20-
30
20-
30
1st
2nd
Organizational
Power
7. Centralization
8. Authority and Responsibility
9. Discipline
Organizational
Reward
Organizational
Attitude
10. Remuneration of personnel
11. Equity
12. Tenure Stability
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13. Subordination of Individual
Interest to General Interest
14. Initiative
15. Esprit de corps
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Max Weber's
THEORY OF
Bureaucracy
gangplank
6 Facets of
Bureaucracy
1. Clearly Defined Hierarchy
2. Division of Labor
3. Centralization
4. Closed Systems
5. Importance of Rules
6. Functioning of Authority
3 Grounds of
Authority
1. Traditional Authority
2. Charismatic Authority
3. Rational-Legal Authority
Frederick Taylor's
THEORY OF
Scientific
Management
4 Principles of
Scientific Management
1. One best way to do a job.
2. Proper fit of workers to job.
3. Train workers best way to do job.
4. Management ≠ labor.
COMMUNICATION IN
Classical
Approaches
CONTENT OF COMMUNICATION
Tasks
DIRECTION OF COMMUNICATION FLOW
Vertical (Downward)
CHANNEL OF COMMUNICATION
Written
STYLE OF COMMUNICATION
Formal
source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_473nrD5vEv8/TPJht-hplbI/AAAAAAAAC_0/dyZ9R1f8mbc/s400/cobbler.jpg
source: http://www.junipergallery.com/sites/default/files/styles/large/public/27302u_0.jpg
> 1800s
< 1800s
Max Weber
(MOX)
(VAY-BER)
Karl Emil Maximilian Weber
Born 1864 in Erfurt, Prussia to noble heritage
Well-educated, flirting with legal practice and public service
East Elbian Report
"...high acclaim and political controversy..."
Appointed as professor in Freiburg in 1894
Prestigious political economics professor 2 years later
"Weber Circle"
Intellectual wife, early women's rights activist
Attracted influential thinkers
Outspoken public activist; "Young Turk"
picture source: http://www.uvm.edu/~lkaelber/research/weberpics/max1884.jpg
The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
(1904)
Translated to English in 1930
Linked capitalistic ideals with Calvinism
Rational approaches derived from religion
"The word 'rationalism' is used by Weber as a term of art, to describe an economic system based, not on custom or tradition, but on the deliberate and systematic adjustment of economic means to the attainment of the objective of pecuniary profit." (Tawney 1905)
picture source: http://hilobrow.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/max_weber.jpg
Combative of, yet influenced by Marx
Culture, not class
Authority hinders democracy
Bureaucracies are downfall of societies
Died suddenly of pneumonia at 56, 1920
Considered one of three founders of sociology
Frederick Winslow Taylor
Born 1856 in Philadelphia to wealthy Quaker family
Planned to go to Harvard but couldn't due to eyesight
Midvale Steel in 1878: gang boss, assistant foreman, foreman of the machine shop, master mechanic, chief draughtsman, chief engineer
1893, independent productivity consultant
1898, Bethlehem Steel, doubled production at half cost
1901, forced to leave company
Promoted scientific management for rest of life
1911, Principles of Scientific Management
1915, died of influenza
picture source: http://www.biography.com/imported/images/Biography/Images/Profiles/T/Frederick-Winslow-Taylor-WC-9503065-1-402.jpg
Frustrations
No stable quality
"Systematic soldiering"
picture source: http://www.philadelphia-reflections.com/images/Taylor.jpg
The labor should include rest breaks so that the worker has time to recover from fatigue. Now one of the very first requirements for a man who is fit to handle pig iron as a regular occupation is that he shall be so stupid and so phlegmatic that he more nearly resembles in his mental make-up the ox than any other type. The man who is mentally alert and intelligent is for this very reason entirely unsuited to what would, for him, be the grinding monotony of work of this character. Therefore the workman who is best suited to handling pig iron is unable to understand the real science of doing this class of work. (Taylor, 1911, p.59)
Solution
Time-motion studies
https://archive.org/details/EasierWa1946
NASA
Challenger
Astronauts were alive when cabin hit ocean; no ELT or survival gear
Answers to questions must be approved by board of inquiry in Washington
Said astronauts were killed instantly; cabin vaporized
Woman found foot; County medical examiner called; Lawyers said no foot existed... (kind of)
Independent skipper found cabin 6 weeks later; told USS Preserver; CBS, anonymous tip
Transported bodies from Kennedy Space Center to Patrick Air Force Base (exclusive jurisdiction)
NASA reported cabin and bodies found; no more info since it could "upset the families"
NASA disliked sailors standing at attention of bodies, but has no control over Navy
"But you can't go public with it, not if you ever want to work anywhere again."

Are they still used? Are they effective?
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