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Latin III Review Project
Transcript of Latin III Review Project
Form by dropping -re off the infinitive (for example, "amare" turns to "ama" for SINGULAR
For PLURAL, drop -re off the infinitive, then add -te for 1st/2nd/4th, and -ite for 3rd (for example, "amare"--->"amate")
Negative= "nolo, nolle" turns to "noli" (SINGULAR) or "nolite" (PLURAL)
Memorize: (order will be in Nominative, Genitive, Dative, Accusative, Ablative)
Singular: qui, cuius, cui, quem, quo
Plural: qui, quorum, quibus, quos, quibus
Singular: quae, cuius, cui, quam, qua
Plural: quas, quarum, quibus, quas, quibus
Singular: quod, cuius, cui, quod, quo
Plural: quae, quorum, quibus, quae, quibus
Volo, Nolo, Malo
Just memorize present tense and apply regular rules for imperfect, perfect, etc.
volo, vollere, volui (translation: I want)
volo, vis, vult, volumus, vultis, volunt
nolo, nollere. nolui (translation: I don't want, be unwilling to)
nolo, non vis, non vult, nolumus, non vultis, nolunt
malo, malle, malui (translation: I prefer)
malo, mavis, mavult, malumus, mavultis, malunt
Comparison of Adjectives and Adverbs
3 degrees of adj and adv.: Positive, Comparative, and Superlative
How to form/translate Adjectives
Positive: given (for example: laetus, laeta, laetum); translate regularly
Comparative: adj. stem* + "ior" or "ius"; translate: _____er, more _____, rather ______.
Superlative: adj. stem + "issimus, issima, issimum"*; translate: ____est, very _____, most _____.
How to form/translate Adverbs
Positive: (1st/2nd) adj. stem + e, (3rd) adj. stem + iter; translate: ____ly
Comparative: adj. stem + "ius"; translate: more ____ly
Superlative: superlative adj. stem + "e"; translate: very ____ly
Present Active Participle
How to form:
NOMNATIVE: present stem of a verb + "ns"(1st/2nd) OR "ens"(3rd/4th)
GENATIVE: present stem of a verb = "ntis"(1st/2nd) OR "entis"(3rd/4th)
Translate: __________ing (example: loving, crying, walking)
Perfect Passive Participle
How to form:
GIVEN: 4th principle part
Translate: having been _____ed (example: having been loved)
Perfect Active Participle
How to form:
GIVEN: (found in vocab list)
Translate: having ______ed (example: having loved, having walked)
Ablative of Agent
An ablative of agent is SOMEONE WHO DOES SOMETHING.
Accompanying the perfect passive participle.
The ablative of agent is in ablative form....what a twist.
It is a dependent subjunctive clause
Cum clause: "cum" means 'when'
conditions under which the sentence happens: Answers question "why?" (casual)
Cum + subjunctive
Example: When I was sitting in the garden, I laughed.--->
"when" becomes "cum"
"sitting" becomes "sederem" (imperfect subjunctive)
QUICK SUBJUNCTIVE LESSON
Imperfect Subjunctive: 2nd principle part + regular endings (-m, -s, -t, -mus, -tis, -nt)
Pluperfect Subjunctive: perfect stem + isse + regular endings
*Adj stem= drop -a off of feminine form or drop -is off genitive
*if it ends in "r", add "rimus, rima, rimum"
1. Tu es melior
You are better.
2. Sum leaena fortissime ambulans ad forum.
I am a lioness bravely walking to the forum.
1. amate tuam matrem et patrem.
Love your mother and father
2. pulsa tuam frater.
Hit your brother.
1. Vultis fugere, sed estis mei captivi.
You all want to escape, but you all are my captives.
2. Nolo lacrimare.
I don't want to cry.
Sum and Possum
Memorize present/imperfect tense of "sum, esse, fui, futurus." (apply regular rules for perfect and pluperfect stem)
Present: sum, es, estis, summus, estis, sunt (translation: I am, You are, He is, etc)
Imperfect: eram, eras, erat, eramus, eratis, erant (translation: I was, You were, He was, etc)
How to form "possum, potesse, potui" (translation: I am able to, I can) and more:
If the be-verb starts with "s", write "pos-" before the "s" (ex: "summus" to "possummus")
If be-verb starts with "e", write "pot-" before the "e" (ex: "estis" to "potestis")
1.Fuerant cachinans, sed nunc lacrimant.
They were cackling, but now they are crying
2. Poteras volare.
You are able to fly.
Nomnative: who, which
Accusative: whom, which
Ablative: whom, which
1. Est vir qui amat me.
He is a man who loves me.
2. Est vir quem amo.
He is the man whom I love.
1. Adepta poculum, eram laeta.
Having obtained the cup, I was happy.
2. Nihilum poterat interficere amantem puellam.
Nothing was able to kill the loving girl.
1. Canis, amatus ab puero, erat laetus.
The dog, having been loved by the boy, was happy.
2. Discipulus malus, a Magistra vituperas, os clausit.
The bad student, having been cursed by Magistra, shut his mouth.
The possessor, the subject described in amounts , and/or the the person/object being described
Example: The father's son is happy. ---> the father is the possessor and therefore turns into genitive.
Example: I have a lovely bunch of coconuts.---> the coconuts is being described in amounts (a bunch) and therefore turns into genitive.
Example: A woman of great anger.---> the woman is being described, therefore the woman is in genitive.
1. mercatoris liber est magnus.
The merchant's book is large.
2. nauta erat viri prudentia.
The sailor was a man of great prudence.
1. cum puer sorrerem pulsaret mater erat iratissima.
When the boy was hitting his sister, the mother was very angry.
2. cum puerum malum amorem, parentes mei erant tristes.
When I was loving the bad boy, my parents were sad.
someone is reporting something
main clause + (ask, tell, say) + Question word (who, what where, etc) + Subjunctive Verb
Magistra asked Tyler when he had learned Latin. ---> The sentence is reporting that a question is being asked, thus "had learned" (the verb) becomes "didicisset" (pluperfect subjunctive
1. Miles rogavit quomodo puella inveniret puerum.
The soldier asked how the girl found the boy
2. Magistra puellam rogavit ubi Latinam didicisset.
Magistra asked the girl when she had learned Latin.
includes the subjunctive marker "ut": means "so that...might"
"so that...might" intends purpose
subjunctive follows "ut"
example: I went to the store so that I might get strawberries. --> "so that I might" turns into "ut" and the verb after "ut" ("get") turns into the subjunctive form "reperirem"
1. veni ad oppidum ut regem interficerem.
I came to town so that I might kill the king.
2. habeo pocculum ut biberem cum pocculum.
I have a cup so that I might drink with the cup.