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Transcript of Radioactivity prezi
Introduction to Radiation
Radioactivity was discovered by Henri Becquerel in 1896. Radioactivity is when an unstable nucleus decays and falls apart.
How to Detect Radiation
By Dylan Mason & Jonathan Shea
Radiation is displayed in three forms Alpha & Beta particles, and Gamma rays.
How to Detect Radiation
Nuclear Fusion and Fission
Radiation in your body.
An Alpha particle occurs when a large nucleus breaks down. The decaying nucleus releases two protons and two neutrons. The decaying nucleus then becomes an element with an atomic number two less than the original element.
Sometimes in an unstable nucleus , a neutron decays into a proton and that proton emits an electron. This electron is the beta particle. The beta particle is the second fastest and powerful form of radiation.
Gamma rays are electromagnetic waves that have the shortest wavelength. They are created when an alpha or beta particle is created. Gamma radiation can pass easily through most surfaces because they move at the speed of light and have no mass
There are four ways to detect radiation.
A half-life is the amount of time it takes for half of the nuclei in a radioactive sample to decay.
A device that measures radiation by making an electric current when it detects a charged particle. The radioactive particle causes electrons to run into a copper tube, creating the current.
The half-life process continues until the
nucleus can not decay any more.
Background radiation is everywhere. Even though background radiation is found in small amounts, it can be found in the decay of radioactive isotopes all around us.
Sources of Background
Background radiation is found almost anywhere but a couple of sources give off more radiation than other sources.
The source that gives off the most radiation is Radon. In fact, Radon gives off so much it actually is about 55% of all background radiation.
Some radiation is found in radioactive isotopes in you body such as carbon-14 in the air we breathe.
Your body is also a source of background radiation.
Radiation and Cancer
Radiation is often thought of as a bad thing, but radiation can also be used for good.
Radiation can be used for treating cancer.
The cancer cells are targeted and the radiation causes the cancer cells to die (decay).
This process is called chemotherapy.
A cloud chamber can be use to detect alpha and beta particles. When a radioactive particle is placed, it takes electrons off the surrounding atoms leaving a trail of ions. The water surrounding the ions condenses and the trail is now noticeable.
Contains superheated liquid but the liquid doesn't boil due to intense pressure. The radioactive particle leaves a trail of ions and the water boils along the ion trail.
Nuclear radiation causes the electroscope to lose its charge. The leaves repel each other until each negative charge can combine with a positive charge.
The nucleus of an atom can be changed to make it larger or smaller than the original nucleus. These processes are called Nuclear Fusion and Nuclear Fission.
Nuclear Fusion is the process in which two smaller nuclei collide at high speed in oder to make a larger nucleus.
Nuclear Fission is the process in which a large nucleus is split into two smaller nuclei. This creates less energy than in fusion.