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Bullying

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Felicia Del Duca

on 27 October 2014

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Transcript of Bullying

Study 3: Peer Victimization in Childhood and Internalizing Problems
-Victimization-> Internalizing symptoms?

-Does victimization in childhood predict internalizing problems for later life?

-Does a dose-response relationship exist?

-And more such as…

-Also looking at victimization leading to depression symptoms. How does that work?
Definitions:
- Peer rejection refers to being actively disliked by the larger peer group.

- Peer victimization occurs when a person is the target of repeated aggression by specific members of the peer group.

- PVC’s are Peer-valued characteristics; in this study they were physical attractiveness, wealth, athletic ability, academic ability.
Study 5: Spirituality and Forgiveness
National Study of Youth and Religion


“In peer relations, the aggressive assertion of power by one person over another” (Textbook)

3 main components:
1. Aggression (physical or verbal)
2. Repetition (not just one incident)
3. Power imbalance (the bully has higher peer status than the victim)

Study 2: Individual and Contextual Factors Associated With Aggression and Peer Victimization During Middle School
Peer Victimization/Bullying in Adolescence


Research hypothesis:
Does peer victimization effect the individual long-term?


-The second goal was to observe the similarities and differences of demographics across those classes.

-The third goal was to look for associations between both class membership and the environmental and social-cognitive factors.

-What factors affect patterns of aggression and victimization in adolescents of different classes?
- Over 80% of adolescents believe in God

- 3% definitely do not believe in God

- Half of all adolescents report that religious faith is very or extremely important to their lives

- Only 8% reporting that religious faith is not important to their lives

- This is a relatively new area of research
By: Kayla Cowley, Marissa Duursma, Michelle Winger, Felicia Del Duca and Noelle Tinus
Mean Girls Clip/ Class Discussion
What are the implications for the mother/daughter relationship?
What are the after effects of bullying?

What is Bullying?
Study 1: Long-Term Psychosocial Consequences of Peer Victimization: From Elementary to High School

Initial Wave:
Students in grade 3, 4 and 5
Second Wave:
Students were followed-up in grade 10, 11, and 12

The Study:

Filled out questionnaire with rating scales for their peers on:
-
Overtly victimized
: picked on by being hit, kicked or scratched, pushed shoved or hair pulled
-
Relationally victimized
: kids who get left out of the group when someone is mad at them or wants to get back at them. Kids who get told ‘you aren’t my friend’ if they don’t go along with what a classmate asks.
This is called
peer nomination
(whether they thought someone was bullied or not)


The Method:

- Victimization in elementary school does not necessarily result in the victim being at high risk for long-term, negative consequences

Such as:
- Diminishes work and academic performance
- Depression
- Suicide
- Increased health concerns

The Results:

- Adolescents who were victimized in elementary school no longer see it as part of their personal narrative

- The negative consequences of peer victimization disappear when the victim’s context (e.g. social groups, friendships, etc.) has changed

What I found to be interesting:
Research hypotheses:

This study’s purpose was to identify classes of adolescents who differ in how aggressive and victimized they are, and look at the factors associated with class membership that affect aggression and victimization in adolescents, such as those that are social-cognitive and environmental.


The Study:
-This is a cross-sectional study in which participants were mostly (i.e., 68 %) African-American students.
-The sample consisted of 502 sixth, seventh, and eighth graders, (45 % of which were male, and the average age being 12.6 years) attending three urban public middle schools in the South-eastern United States.
-The participants completed self-report measures of aggression, victimization, and associated individual and contextual factors.
The Method:
-Students completed measures as part of a larger intervention study evaluating a school-level violence prevention program.

-Participants were randomly recruited from a sample of nearly the same number of boys and girls within each grade at each school.
Procedure:
-The students filled out questionnaires with rating scales that assessed the following:

-Aggression and Peer Victimization

-Beliefs About Fighting and Nonviolent Alternatives

-Behavioral Intentions and Perceived Effectiveness of Responses to Problem Situations

-Self-Efficacy for Nonviolence

-Parental Support for Aggression and Nonviolence

-Peer Support for Aggression and Nonviolence
Results:
-The study found that there are many social-cognitive and environmental factors associated with class membership that affect patterns of aggression and victimization in adolescents. We will now address some of them.

-There were four classes of adolescents representing non-victimized aggressors, aggressive-victims, predominantly victimized youth, and well-adjusted youth.
Hypothesis:
-Investigate association between victimization in childhood and later internalizing problems.
Key Terms:
-Direct (verbal or physical)

-Indirect (rumours, cyber-bullying)

-5 things referring to direct victimization:

o 1) Belongings taken

o 2) Threatened/Blackmailed

o 3) Hit/Beaten Up

o 4) Tricked

o 5) Name-calling




-4 things referring to indirect victimization:

o 1) Exclusion

o 2) Peer Pressure

o 3) Lies/Gossip

o 4) Spoiling Fun
-Internalizing problems: include depression and vulnerability to later development of clinical problems, issues in social settings.
-Dose-relationship: amount of bullying is an independent variable that affects internalizing problems experienced.
The Study:
- Results found independent of reporting

- Why might this be? Peer importance.

- Assesses measures of adversity affecting study

- Keep in mind: not all bullied had later problems
Method:
- Began with 13,978

- Started testing after first trimester

- Assessing mother and child

-Restricted sample: 3,692 were actually used

-People who were excluded?

Three Measures:

- 1) SMFQ (Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire)

- 2) SDQ (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire)

- 3) DAWBA (Development and Well-Being Assessment)

- Victimization was considered present when occurred repeatedly or frequently

- Potential Confounders
Results:
- Higher depressive symptoms, more persistent

- Short-lived and long-term

- Short-term distress symptoms

- Symptoms of psychosis

- Moderately strong relationship

- Direct vs. Indirect results

- Symptoms in adulthood

- Adolescent bullying predicts short and long-term symptoms

- Dose-relationship is present

- Results of study

- Moderate predictor
I found Interesting...
- Direction of influence?

- Lower depression reports from parents

- Girls vs. Boys

-In Conclusion…


Study 4: What Protects Rejected Adolescents From Also Being Bullied by Their Peers? The Moderating Role of Peer-Valued Characteristics
Study:

Research Hypothesis:
It was predicted that characteristics valued by peers (PVCs i.e., physical attractiveness, wealth, athletic ability, academic ability) would moderate the relationship between peer rejection and victimization.

Participants:
- 549 canadian, middle-class students in Grades 6–10
- Longitudinal study
Method:

Measures and Procedures:

- Demographic information

- Peer nominations on peer victimization, rejection, attractiveness, wealth, academic and athletic competence

Results:
- Each PVC moderated the relationship between peer rejection and peer victimization

-Demonstrates the buffering effects of non behavioral characteristics
-No significant sex differences were found
Discussion/Future Research:
- Challenging to alter

- Future work should examine whether this buffering effect holds over time


The Study – Carter, J., Flanagan, K. S., & Caballero, A. B. (2013)


- 133 seventh- and eighth-grade students attending a private Christian school in a sub-urban area of the Midwest

- Families of participants were generally middle- to upper-middle class




Forgiveness:
- Is associated with decreases in stress, anger, depression, and anxiety as well as restoration of interpersonal relationships

- Tri-perspective: God – Self – Others

Scripture:

- “Therefore if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; the old things have passed away; behold, new things have come” (2 Cor 5:17)

- Lord’s Prayer: “And forgive us our sins, as we forgive those who sin against us…” (Luke 11:4

- “But if you do not forgiver, neither will your Father who is in heaven forgive your transgressions” (Mark 11:26)
Findings:
- “…research suggests that although spirituality may help an adolescent make sense of mild, infrequent incidences of peer victimization, chronic and stressful social situations may cause adolescents to struggle with their spirituality” (p. 151)

- With more victimization adolescents reported lower levels of spiritual forgiveness

- All levels of peer victimization were negatively related to spirituality
Forgiveness may be challenging for adolescents…
- Changing social climate and the importance of peer acceptance

- Justice-oriented understanding of forgiveness

- Cycle of victimization


Intervention:
- Because peer victimization most commonly occurs at school, school-based interventions are the primary means for addressing bullying

- Current vs. proposed intervention

- Peer victimization and certain aspects of spirituality are negatively related but adolescent reactions are linked to differences in the frequency, duration, and severity of the abuse
Takeaway Points…

- Adolescents who were victimized in elementary school no longer see it as part of their personal narrative. The negative consequences of peer victimization disappear when the victim’s context (e.g. social groups, friendships, etc.) has changed

- There is a large diversity of groups displaying varying levels of aggression and the unique effects of internal and contextual factors on the development of aggression and victimization during adolescence. The results illustrate how youths’ become more sophisticated in adolescence due to increases in social knowledge. They also emphasize the increasing influence that peers have on youth behaviour.

- Peer victimization in childhood can have serious mental health consequences over the longer term. It should be considered an important public health risk, rather than an acceptable feature of child development

- Peer victimization and certain aspects of spirituality are negatively related but adolescent reactions are linked to differences in the frequency, duration, and severity of the abuse
Video:
Any Questions or Comments?
Participants:
Measures:

- Spirituality: using four subscales

- Daily Spiritual Experiences

- Spiritual Forgiveness

- Spiritual Practices

- Religious Attendance

- Peer victimization: using the Bully Youth Survey- Student Version

- Victimization frequency

- Victimization severity
-Answers to the fill in the blanks will be up on Discovery
Full transcript