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Western Civ 7 - The Industrial Revolution

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Margaret Peacock

on 3 March 2016

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Transcript of Western Civ 7 - The Industrial Revolution

Why Europe?
Why did the industrial revolution happen first in Europe – in Britain, Belgium, France, the Ruhr Valley, and northern Italy?
Two Preconditions:
Raw materials
Population explosion predicated upon an agricultural revolution, which creates demand for goods and an enlarged labor force.
Why Britain first?
Four additional preconditions
Plenty of capital predicated upon commercial and financial revolutions

Laissez-faire economic policy

A culture of social mobility and respect for merchants

Innovation
The Industrial Revolution
Cotton
The spinning jenny
1733, John Kay invents the flying shuttle
1763, James Hargreaves invents the spinning jenny.
1769, Richard Arkwright invents the water frame
1793, Eli Whitney invents the cotton gin
By 1800, all they need is the energy to make it happen.
After the 1760s, all these inventions begin to be collected together in factories
Fixing the Cotton Problem
Britain becomes manufacturer to the world.
Factory owners get very wealthy
Consumers have access to lots of new goods.

Results Vary
The answer to the problem is steam
1712, Newcomen patents his “atmospheric engine”
1769, James Watt makes the engine more efficient so that it will run in a circular motion.
1785, steam engines are applied to textile manufacturing.
Factories can be closer in
Size is limited by the amount of steam you can produce
Steam is limited by the strength of the metals that make up the engine.
Alternative power sources
But how do we power the factories?
When the factories are powered by water, they are limited to remote areas outside of the city.

The rivers could also freeze.
The Bessemer Converter
1856, Bessemer discovers that pre-heated iron and carbon produce steel.
Making stronger metals
*Term to know: Rate Determining Step
Arkwright's Water Frame
Whitney's Cotton Gin
Better metals means better tools, meaning bigger factories.

The cottage industry is increasingly rendered obsolete.
Cotton in the 18th century is hard
to get and hard to make.

Production is difficult, making it rare.
Cotton manufacturing is a cottage industry.

The Making of the Working Class
A class of urban factory workers is born as a product of the Industrial Revolution.
The Split of the Middle Class
Living Conditions
Riis, Jacob A. (Jacob August), 1849-1914
Food and Health
Pollution of Thames River in London (1858)
Illustrated in Punch cartoon "Silent Highway Man"
The working class receives poor nutrition.
They are prone to diseases.
Full transcript