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Education and Culture

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Hannah White

on 23 April 2014

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Transcript of Education and Culture

The Burning of Books!
Propaganda
aim: -acquiring and maintaining power
-implementation of policies
- pursuit of total war
-extermination of millions of people
in the Holocaust

-negative connotation
- present only one side of an argument.
Characteristics
disseminated Nazi ideology
form of brief hyperboles directed against the weakness of parliamentarism
the evils of Jewry and Bolshevism
the national humiliation of the Versailles Treaty
attacks against political opponents
engaged in the glorification of Nazi heroes such as Horst Wessel
Education


crucial part of life in Nazi Germany
promoted a loyal following for Hitler and the Nazis.
would create loyal Nazis by the time they reached adulthood.

Hitler Youth had been created: post-school activities and schools - indoctrination and the use of propaganda were a common practice in Nazi schools.

Any teacher considered ‘disloyal’ was sacked.



Education and Culture in Nazi Germany
Forms of Media
Cause and Consequence
-Hitler
believed
that Britain won WWI mainly because of use of propaganda

-Hitler was strong at giving speeches

-targeted audience: public

-most effective on teenagers

-Hitler Youth was formed

-
When?
10 May 1933
Who?
German university Students, brownshirted storm troopers
Where?
Berlin
What?
the students burned more than 25,000 volumes of "un-German" books (those with Jewish, socialist or pacifist tendencies) from private and public libraries
- Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda: Joseph Goebbels (1930)
Posters
Newspapers:
Feb 1925 - People's Observer[NSDAP], daily
1926- The Attack[Joseph Goebbels]
Books (textbooks, comics, magazines )
Speeches (Speakers)
Radio broadcast (Internal and External)
Photography , Films
Signal
Press
w/Nazi logo/Hitler portrait/Germany(nation)
Audio
Pre-1933
Place:
Pre-1933: Berlin, Munich
1933-1945: Radio, Film[Triumph of Will, The Eternal Jew]
Speech: Joesph G, Adolf H.

Many attended classes during school holidays

97% of teachers joined the Nazi Teachers' Association.

All teachers monitored what they said as children were encouraged to tell authorities
if they said something that didn't fit in with the Nazi's curriculum.
On Snake:
usury, Versailles, unemployment, war guilt lie, Marxism, Bolshevism, lies and betrayal, inflation, Locarno, Dawes Pact, Young Plan, corruption, [the last three Jews involved in major financial scandals], prostitution, terror, civil war
Teachers
Headline--
A Historic day: First Acts for Hitler's Reich Government
Significant example
-a newspaper announced that Jews kidnapped German children before Passover because, Jews need the blood of Christian child, maybe, to mix with their Matzah
The Arts
The Aims
Considered as mindless barbarism
To Control Culture...



Biology
study of the different races to 'prove' that the Nazi belief in racial superiority was a sound belief.
Hitler decreed: "no boy or girl should leave school without complete knowledge of the necessity and meaning of blood purity."

Older pupils
importance of marrying the right mate was stressed
having children
the problems of inter-racial marriage (led to a decrease in racial purity.)



Reich Chamber of Culture
- established in Sept 1933
- supervised by the Propaganda Ministry
- "Co-ordinated" culture
- had 7 sub-chambers:
fine arts, the theatre, the press, radio, literature, music, films


•Had a different curriculum to boys

•studied domestic science and eugenics - prepared girls to be mothers/wives.

•Eugenics: girls taught about the characteristics to look out for in a father and husband.

•PE - seen as a highly important part of the curriculum.

•PE took up 15% of a school's weekly timetable.

In 1937, pupils were given the choice of studying Religious Instructions or not.


Girls' Education
Fine Arts
Effectively regimented by the Nazi constraints


Those considered ‘special’: different schools created.

Physically fitter/stronger boys went to Adolf Hitler Schools: taught to be the future leaders of Germany.

6 years of tough physical training took place and when the pupils from these schools left aged 18, they went to the army or to university.
Best pupils went to Order Castles: schools which took pupils to the limits of physical capacity.

War games used live ammunition.
Pupils killed at these schools.

Those who graduated from the Order Castles were expected to gain a high position in the army/SS.


Josef Wackerle. Horse Tamer. 1936
Berlin Olympic Ground
Theatre
Actors: prefer classics
(eg: Shakespeare)

-> because politically acceptable & best in traditions
Films
Boys' Education

From 1935 on, after the
Nuremburg Laws
Jewish
school children were not allowed to attend schools.
The Nazi government claimed that a German pupil sitting next to a Jew could become
contaminated
by the experience.

The purpose of this educational backbone was to create a future generation that was blindly loyal to Hitler and the Nazis.

Indoctrination
: critical in all subjects.
Teachers expected to
harshly analyse
the lifestyle of the Jews.
Exam questions: involved
blunt reference
to the government's
anti-Semitic
viewpoint.


Industry maintained: major studios managed by nationalist sympathiser
Leni Riefenstahl: talent director, "Triumph of the Will"
-> cinematic techniques evoke great emotions
Goebbels: expanding form of entertainment, recounciled political objectives
Literature
over 2,500 of Germany's literary community
left their homeland
in 1933-1945
showing how writers & dramatists (e.g. Thomas Mann and Bertolt Brecht) viewed the new cultural atmosphere

Music
through radio broadcast (only approved nationalist music allowed)
X written by Jews, X "new genres"(eg Jazz), X perform in public if not a member of Reich Music Chamber
"good German music" fits into German(Nazi) standard
Nazi attempted to balance censorship & creativity

People appreciated: Ludwig van Beethoven
Other IMPORTANT notes

Jews in schools - violence

Jewish children attending Jewish schools
inevitably had problems too.


Hitler Youth members waited at the end of the school day to abuse Jewish boys as they left school.


There was very little that these boys could do to fend off these bullies.



was seen as an important element to strengthening the Third Reich and purifying the nation
aimed to shape the population's attitudes by carrying political messages with stereotyped concepts and art forms


Art for art’s sake
” was
no longer
encouraged
Culture was to serve the purpose of
moulding public opinion
Became another means of achieving
censorship and indoctrination
In the Third Reich...
Anti-Semitism
Militarism and the glorification of war
Nationalism and the supremacy of the Aryan race
The cult of the Führer and the power of absolutism
Anti-modernism and the theme of "Blood and Soil"
Neo-paganism and a repudiation of traditional Christian values

Key themes of Nazi culture:
Hannah White
Zoe Chan
Lorraine Wong
Joyce To

"Education: The Jewish Experience." The Holocaust Explained. London Jewish Cultural Centre, n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2014. <http://www.theholocaustexplained.org/ks3/life-in-nazi-occupied-europe/impact-on-jewish-communities/education-the-jewish-experience/#.Utxmn3AZ7IU>.

Layton, Geoff. "The Social and Racial Impact of the Third Reich." Germany: The Third Reich 1933-45. Second ed. London: Hodder & Stoughton, 2000. N. pag. Print.

"Nazi Book Burnings." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 17 Jan. 2014. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazi_book_burnings>.

"Nazi Education." History Learning Site. N.p., n.d. Web. 16 Jan. 2014. <http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/Nazi_Education.htm>.

"A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust, The Arts." A Teacher's Guide to the Holocaust, The Arts. The Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of South Florida, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. <http://fcit.usf.edu/holocaust/arts/arts.htm>.

"Triumph of Hitler: Burning of Books." The History Place. The History Place, n.d. Web. 20 Jan. 2014. <http://www.historyplace.com/worldwar2/triumph/tr-bookburn.htm>.
Bibliography
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