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European Colonization Study Guide

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Ali Kiley

on 19 December 2013

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Transcript of European Colonization Study Guide

European Colonization Study Guide
Mayan Civilization
Aztec Empire
Inca Civilization
Reasons for European exploration:

•power, control
•wealth, money - tribute, goods
•religious expansion
•intelligence, education
•curiosity, adventure
•personal glory/recognition
•testing new ideas in geography
•centralization of monarch's power
Why did he go?
•to find a direct waterway from Europe to China
•wanted to find China because
of the accounts of Marco Polo
•wanted the riches in China, because of the desire of luxury goods brought on from Crusades
•believed it was his duty to spread Christianity
What was his description of the Native Americans?
•timid/ shy and therefore would make good slaves
•generous in giving and happy to receive even the littlest amount
•happy to wear nothing
•had no real weaponry
•possessed many things in abundance which the Spaniards needed
•technologically advanced
•believed that the gods were a part of nature.

Why did he incorrectly state that there was gold, cotton, and spices?
•to prove that he has landed in China due to Marco Polo's accounts of China
•to get further sponsorship and royal backing for future journeys

Science and Mathematics
•used herbs and other medicines to treat fevers and wounds

•could set bones and treat dental cavities

•created a 260-day ritual calendar and a 365-day solar calendar

•used their knowledge of mathematics and astronomy to foretell the future

Technology and Agriculture
•Agriculture = struggle because the land was made up of lakes and marshland
-built Chinampas* for farming
-Canals for transportation
-wide stone causeways linking Tenochtitlan to the mainland

Chinampas- artificial islands made of mud piled atop reed mats that were anchored to the shallow lake-bed with willow trees


•believed that gods created the world

•believed that the gods sacrificed themselves for human life and consumption

•they worshiped them through sacrifices and the temples dedicated to their gods

Government and Society
•Emperor (singular leader, main role = to lead in war)
•nobles (Officials/judges/governors of conquered lands)
•warriors (noble status if good battlefield performance)
•priests (provided rituals to keep social peace*)
•traders (ferried goods across empire and beyond)
•commoners (farmers, majority of society)
•slaves and serfs (mostly POWs, slaves had rights)

•the capital=heart of the civilization
•advanced mathematics, astronomy, and engineering, •complex social system
•had oral poetry and historical traditions
•great military- used wealth they got from war
(including tribute) to help them finance their capital city
Advances of Tenochtitlan
•location for the capital was, apparently, decided by the gods
(now Mexico City)
Basic Info
•empire ruled by Montezuma II
•larger than any European city at the time
(1454 – 1512)
Viceroyalties: Districts of the New World divided by the Europeans in order to maintain control. (Ruled by a ruler called a Viceroy)

Viceroy- white european from a noble family who served as an imperial governor that ruled within each viceroyalty and had a broad military and civil authority as the Spanish sovereign’s direct representative and served over the audiencia

•New Spain
•New Granada
•La Plata

Colombian Exchange
Definition: an exchange of fauna and flora (between Spain and it's Colombian land in the New World), launched by the migration of people through discovery of animals, plants, and diseases
Europe --> New World:
wheat, olive groves, grapes, rice, bananas, sugar plants, horses, cattle, sheep, dogs, pigs, chickens and goats
New World --> Europe:
corn, white potatoes, beans, squash, pumpkins, avocados, and tomatoes

Encomienda System
Definition: where the Spanish monarch(s) granted the conquerors the right to "employ" (aka. enslave) groups of Amerindians as agricultural or mining laborers or as tribute payers
Las Casas
•critiqued the encomienda system because of the amount of deaths of Amerindians it resulted in
•focuses on the Caribbean Islands in saying this, but the death rate elsewhere is just as dramatic
•He suggested they give the Amerindians rights, and expose them to Spanish culture and religion (leads to missionaries)
Valladolid Debate
Las Casas
•believed it was the duty of the Spanish to convert the natives to Catholicism and work diligently to make them civilized christians
•disagreed with encomienda system and conquest campeigns b/c of excessive violence
•instead, wanted to make natives more christian with fair treatment and immersion in spanish culture and religion
•believed "barbarians" to be non-christians who could only be cleansed by converting to Catholicism and receiving the sacraments
•believed the natives needed to be enslaved and taught to be more humane
•saw the natives as barbarians b/c of their practices of human sacrifice and cannibalism
•believed the conversion of Amerindians to Christianity was hopeless and the only way to suppress their barbaric nature was through slavery
•believed "barbarians" to be people who are cruel, savage, stupid, strangers to reason, those ungoverned by law, those without a political rule or a social hierarchy
•both claimed themselves victorious
•Encomienda system was not reestablished, but missions arose in it's place
•missions were formed to more humanely convert people to Christianity, but in some places, that wasn't the case
•Priests sent to live in different regions and convert natives to Christianity, but if people disagreed, they were forcibly converted
Social Hierarchy

•City leader (King/Queen)
•Wealthy Nobles
•Professionals, Bureaucrats, Merchants, Artisans
•Farmers (bulk of society) and Slaves
-collecting taxes
-managed public works
-enforced laws
Agriculture and Farming
•Built elevated fields to lift crops from annual flood waters
•Used Slash and Burn Agriculture

(Slash and burn- they burned down forests to clear the land for farming)

Science and Mathematics
•Created a 365 day Solar calendar
•Created a 260 day ritual calendar
• Created a number system (including the concept of 0)


•Believed people had spirits associated w/ animals
•Built palaces from stone
•Burial place for rulers, nobles, priests
•Meeting place for gov.
•On top of temples priests performed sacrifices

How did the Amerindians view the Europeans?
How did the Europeans establish control over the Amerindians?
Hierarchy within the Viceroyalty
•Viceroys- Spain's noble families
•Hidalgos- lesser nobles who had government jobs, controlled commerce, and church positions
•Creoles- American born of European Ancestry
16th Century- •Blacks
17th Century- •Blacks and Amerindians

Race in the Colonial Latin America
16th Century- blacks from Europe were free (Afro Iberians)

17th Century- Atlantic Slave Trade grows, more black slaves, status lowers on social hierarchy

•Mulattos- combination of blacks and Europeans
•Mestizos- Europeans and Amerindians
•they wore colorful clothing
•they rejected sacrifices, singing, dancing seen at religious ceremonies- insulting their culture
•wore iron shields, had strong weapons, horses("giant deer"), attack without notice

How did the Europeans view the Amerindians?
Social/ Political
•no judicial system
•no laws for bad behavior
•equality for men and women
Physical Traits
•no clothing
•medium stature (well-proportioned)
•black hair, dark skin
•fast, athletic
•uniform living quarters
•pregnancy is "easy"
•release fluids everywhere
•no mealtime or place

•didn't offer sacrifices
•not jewish, muslim, or pagan
•no place of worship
•Epicurean* indulgent

Epicurean: Devoted to the pursuit of sensual pleasure, especially to the enjoyment of good food and comfort
•bows and arrows (with animal teeth, not iron
•always hit targets
•women were allowed to fight
•no captain
Politics and Society
•Emperor is called Sapa Inca- he held absolute power and was also the religious leader
•Nobles ruled provinces
•Local chieftain officials- assigned jobs to families, arranged marriages, and enforced laws
•People had no personal property and the Sapa Inca would feed everyone.

Agriculture and Achievements
•Created new forms of communication (quechua and quipu) that created one of history’s great road networks

quechua: word of mouth
quipu: a way to record information

•Used terrace farming

terrace farming: farming by carving out flat strips of land on steep hillsides and building stone walls to hold the land in place, which kept rain from washing away the soil to make farming possible in hilly areas

Religion and Practice
•had religious practices like offering food, clothes, and drinks
•festival every month
•a powerful class of priests served the gods
Chief among the gods was the sun god
•select women were chosen by sun god to study the mysteries of religion, prepare ritual foods and drinks, and make elaborate wool garments for the Sapa Inca and his wife

How did he conquer the Inca?
•the Inca thought the Spanish men were gods, so they were naive in thinking they (the Spanish) would not hurt them (the Inca)
•when the Spanish gave the Bible to the natives, and said "this is the word of God", the Inca didn't understand how to read so they were insulted when they could not hear the "word of God" and threw the Bible on the ground, starting trouble
Weapons and Defense
The Spanish
•had iron weapons, swords, cannons, guns for fighting
•they had iron shields that allowed them to protect themselves
The Amerindians
•had bows and arrows, but did not come armed to battle
helpful for...
•fighting- to stab and ride at the same time
•travel- to get from one place to another quickly
•intimidation- the natives had not seen them before
•Spanish were resistant to germs and diseases like Small Pox
•the natives were not resistant to them yet, so they fell ill easily and died in drastic numbers b/c of it
•was the first person to see and explore Brazil (Amazonian area)
•went to the Bahamas and brought back 200 Native Americans to work as slaves in Europe
•predicted the size of the world and was only 50 miles off from the actual size
•North and South America named after him because he was the first to recognize they were not in Asia
the natives came down with Small Pox and 1/3 of them died within the first century of conquest
Military Strategies
•used divide and conquer- got to the more rebellious groups under the Aztecs to help them fight the empire
•captured the capital, destroyed the city, and built Mexico City on top of it
How did he conquer the Aztecs?
How was race used in establishing power dynamics in colonial Latin America?
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