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Architecture of the 1960s
Transcript of Architecture of the 1960s
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Both urban and suburban architecture of the 1960s became a major symbol of societal change by how various conflicting design/architectural styles (Modernism and postmodernism) and ways of thinking collided
The 60s Architecture came to symbolize change through the introduction of new styles such as brutalism and formalism, all culminating to the "International Style"
A symbol of change came through collaborations of different architects, creating more diversity and development of prominent and profound architectural features/structures, still admired and used today.
Much of the change in architecture was through the work of architects and visionary designers such as Phillip Johnson, John Burgee, I.M. Pei, Eero Saarinen, and Robert Venturi.
From an architectural standpoint, the 1960s was a significant decade of transition and revolutionary development, from conservative and functional, to comfortable and more ornamental buildings.
Also there came the development of landmarks and defining structures of today's modern cities, and introducing new styles of suburban homes including "Prairie", "Split level", and "Cottage Style".
A Symbol of Societal Change
John Burgee was another influential American designer/architect, making major contributions to the "Postmodernism Movement", famously collaborating with the architect Philips Johnson.
What Caused so Much Change? and How Were the 1960s Significant Through Architecture?
Perhaps one of the most influential of all people involved in the "Postmodernism Movement" was famous architect and designer Phillip Johnson. He has been credited for helping create the concept of the "International style" (Identifiable by it's use of steel, metal, and glass); which dominated American cities during the 1930s to 1970s.
By Ashley Smith and Skylar Roberts
One of these major contributions by Burgee and the Johnson/Burgee partnership, was the concept and creation of design features that now have come to symbolize most every urban city: Skyscrapers and high rises. One of the Johnson/Burgee Partnership's most prominent achievements was the design and development of the IDS Center in Minneapolis, Minnesota, as well as the "Lipstick Building" in New York, which eventually the partnership moved their headquarters to.
Modernism (1930s into the early 1960s) vs Post Modernism (Late 1960s into the 1980s)
Brutalism (Late 1950s into the Early 1970s)
"Styles of American Architecture"
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(4:12 to 5:17)
"Post-Modern Architecture and the Architects Involoved in It." Post-Modern Architecture and the Architects Involoved in It. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2016.
"PCF&P - Projects Completed 1960 - 69." PCF&P - Projects Completed 1960 - 69. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2016.
"Architect Eero Saarinen." Capps, Michael A. "Eero Saarinen - Architect With a Vision." National Park Service. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Feb. 2016.
"New Formalism." Architectural Styles in Fullerton:. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2016.
"Styles In American Architecture." Styles in American Architecture. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2016.
"John Burgee." John Burgee. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2016.
"Modernism and Brutalism." Architectural Styles of America and Europe. N.p., 17 Oct. 2011. Web. 07 Feb. 2016.
Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2016.
"Styles of American Architecture." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2016.
"Building Boise: 1960s." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2016.
"Drawing History of American Residential Architecture in 8 Minutes." YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2016.
"The Sixties: Moments in Time." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2016.
"Philip Johnson Biography." -- Academy of Achievement. N.p., n.d. Web. 07 Feb. 2016.
What Else Was Going on In This Decade to Cause Such a Change in Thinking?
One of the most significant events that impacted the way-of-thinking of the 1960s was the 1950s to 1960s "Baby Boom". This caused the demand for new homes for families in suburban communities, often referred to as Levittown.
Also, in certain urban cities, there was a need for reconstruction due to turmoil/riots, such as the Watts Race riots of Los Angeles in 1965.
Philips Johnson's Achievements
Structures such as the Glass House (1949) and the Pennzoil Place in Houston Texas are some of his most famous architectural achievements. In terms of awards, he has gone down in history as the first ever recipient of the Pritzker Architectural Prize and a recipient of the gold medal from the American Institute of Architects, for his major contributions to the new era of architecture and design in the United States.
Ieoh Ming (I.M.) Pei
Yet another famous architect during the 1960-70s architectural movement was I.M. Pei; A chinese born Architect and Designer. During his career, he was associated with companies such as Webb and Knapp Inc., Pei and Associates (1955-1966)/Pei and Partners (1966-1989) and the National Defense Committee. With these partnerships, he developed major government buildings and architecture of the 60s
I.M. Pei Achievements and Projects
One of Pei's first major design accomplishments was the design of the National Center for Atmospheric Research in Boulder, CO. Additional projects he embarked on was the John Fitzgerald Kennedy Memorial Library in 1964 as well as the National Gallery of Art's east building from 1968 to 1978. Also, like Philip Johnson, Pei was a recipient of numerous awards such as the Pritzker Architecture Prize
One more notable architect/designer of the architectural movement of the 60s, is Eero Saarinen; an analytical man, infatuated with the environment, and modern eccentric designs, were classic of modernism/postmodernism styles. He also made a plethora of accomplishments and at an impressively young age.
Eero Saarinen Projects and Accomplishments
Saarinen's creativity led him to create unique if not eccentric structures such as the St. Louis Arch (Resulting in him being the 1947 winner of the Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Competition) as well as major airports such as the Dulles International Airport in Washington D.C., and the TWA Terminal in New York City.
Modernism (1930s to Early 1960s) vs Postmodernism (Late 1960s into the 80s)
Modernism vs Post Modernism Continued
1960s Cottage Style Homes
Modernism is the cultural movement that industrialized and advanced the technologies of 60s, especially in urban buildings
What Else was Going on During the 60s? Cont.
The fear of nuclear attack and terrorism factored into the construction of bomb shelters and buildings made with more durable material.
The famous Apollo 11 landing on the moon in 1969 helped inspire the change to "mid-century modern" designs, seen in urban buildings/skyscrapers, and even to a degree, in motels.
The Lipstick Building
The IDS Center
John Fitzgerald Kennedy Library
TWA Terminal at JFK International Airport
The transition from modernism to postmodernism sought to introduce more comfort, aesthetic appeal, vivacity, decoration, and color into architecture
Steel and concrete materials were the preferred choice in the architecture of this style
The style incorporated a motif of geometric shapes and patterning
They were perceived as an easy style to construct that was cheap, simplistic, durable, and more or less attractive
Post modernism was founded on the idea that architecture should have meaning and expression in building techniques, forms, and stylistic allusions/references
Modernism incorporated design features such as flat roofs and columns (As a functional piece) whereas postmodernism introduced gable roofs, and considered certain "functional" modern features more for aesthetic appeal
Modernist Prairie Style Homes
Post modernist Style Homes with gabled roofs
Modernist Split level homes
Postmodernist High Rise Building
Modernist Dome House
Modernist designed houses and high rise buildings were monolithic (Coming from a single block or piece of material) vs postmodernist designs which adopted a more tiered design
Features of Brutalist architecture from the 60s included recessed windows, the use of brick & concrete, as well as juxtaposing shapes
Frequently, Brutalist architecture was seen in the construction of university buildings during the 1960s decade, including various universities in California
Formalism (Mid 1950s into the Early 1970s)
Design elements such as a podium foundation, smooth walls, arches, columns, colonnades and materials such as marble and granite were defining characteristics of Formalist architecture of the 1960s
The formalist design style was used primarily for prominent, high profile institution buildings (Such as the California Institute of Technology and University of Southern California) and major performing arts centers (Such as the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts in Washington, D.C.
or the Lincoln Center for the Performing Arts in New York City).
How did the architecture change the way people thought or went about daily life?
Architecture changed the way people thought and went about daily life because it changed their perspective of the environment, the features in their homes/workplaces, and thus inspired them to re-evaluate and update the way they lived.
Architects began thinking more creatively and welcomed more abstract and ornamental ideas, rather than continue with simply bland and functional designs; which, put a new look into everyone's lives.
Architecture of the 1960s also changed the way people went about their daily lives with the addition of newly constructed suburban neighborhoods higher educational institutions, high rise office buildings, as well as skyscrapers
What's the significance of 1960s Architecture today?
The significance of the architecture in the 1960s today is that our architecture is now more modernized, more structured, and durable.
Also, there is now a greater variety of styles for people to choose from, and can be used today as inspiration for design of new architecture.
Plus, without certain architecture from the 1960s, there would likely not be some of the same major skyscrapers, airports, university/college campuses, theaters, or other structures, which are so iconic and significant to people today
Cottage style homes like these (Of modernist and postmodernist design) were becoming popular among suburban neighborhoods adopting the "International Style"
“Drawing History of American Architecture” (6:27- 7:05)
One of the up and coming home types of the 60s was the "split level" home, which was characterized by the fact that the house would have two different "levels" on a single floor, or story
This was achieved typically with a short set of stairs between rooms such as the dining room and the living room
Modernist style "prairie home"
Modernist prairie style homes during the 1960s have been credited as inspirations for postmodern ranch style houses, which like their prairie style counterparts, also featured low set roofs, single story and an open floor plan