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Corinne Parish

on 31 October 2013

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Transcript of Memory

Endel Tulving (1972)
suggested that
occurs when we lack of cues to access a memory.

are additional pieces of information.

tip of the tongue phenomenon (Brown and McNeill, 1966)
is the most common experience.
Interference Theory:
Already acquired memory is interfering with new memory.
We are forgetting memory which we want to gain
An acquired condition involving multiple cognitive impairments that interfere with activities of daily living.
APA defines memory as "the mental capacity, to encode, store and retrieve information".

The three steps of memory:
Step 1:
Step 2:
Step 3:
What is forgetting?
Why do we forget?
And how?
Forgetting = unable to recall and/or recognise information has already been encoded and stored
Famous video game, Amnesia
Dory, Finding Nemo
Amnesia is when memory loss occurs following a brain injury
(brain damage),
drug use or a psychological trauma.
(Holt et al, 2012)
It is believed that Amnesia is a
way to deal with severe emotional shock
, as a way to shield self from memories that would otherwise cause anxiety, or furthermore PSTD.
Recovery time for amnesia can vary. (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2013)
Anterograde Amnesia
Cannot recall events after the first onset of amnesia.
(Holt et al, 2012)
'Short-term' memory loss.
Can remember details like name, who they are etc, but their memory resets after a short amount of time, so they might end up asking the same questions repetitively. (Moore, MD. 2008)
Infantile Amnesia
Cannot recall past experiences before the onset of amnesia.
(Holt et al, 2012)
'Long-term' memory loss
However, can make new memories after the trauma.
(Moore, MD. 2008)
a.k.a. Childhood amnesia
Inability to remember childhood memories (usually before the ages of three or four). (Holt et al, 2012)
Common Causes
traumatic brain injury,
herpes simplex encephalitis

(Moore, MD. 2008)
Fictional Example:
Patient is rushed to the hospital following a car crash, she has a traumatic brain injury.
After surgery when she wakes up, she cannot remember the events just before the crash, or who she is.
She can't recall her name, where she lives or had lived, who she lived with, her parents, where she went school, is she in a relationship? etc
Common Causes
Transient global amnesia,
Pure epileptic amnesia,
Transient ischemic attacks

(Moore, MD. 2008)
Fictional Example:
Patient has suffered a concussion from a sporting incident.
He is now conscious and in A & E, with his wife, when the doctor comes in and tells him that he has broken his arm. 5 minutes later he tells his wife she should mention to the doctor to take a look at his arm because it is sore, and she tells him that it is broken.
"How do you know that?" he asks,
"Because the doctor told us that it was broken, 5 minutes ago, when he came in with your X-Ray results," she replies.
Anterograde & Retrograde Amnesia
Depending on the cause amnesia the onset can be slow or fast.
This affects both the long-term and the short-term memory.
Frequently display better memory for events that occurred a long time ago in comparison to recent events. (Moore, MD. 2008)
The extent of Anterograde Amnesia is tends to be correlated with the extent of Retrograde Amnesia. (Smith et al, 2013)

Common Causes
Korsaff’s syndrome
Stroke in the temporal lobe or thalamus
Traumatic brain injury
Neurodegenerative disorders e.g. Alzheimer’s disease

(Moore, MD. 2008)

Retroactive Interference...
...occurs before one learns the new material. Something one has learned before, is interfering with the learning of the new material.

Proactive Interference...
...occurs after one learned the material and before one has to remember it.
Apple, Library, Lion, Arm,
Horse, Christmas, Peace, Run
Is best remembered (recency effect)
Proactive Interference
Is remembered 2nd. best (primary effect)
Retroactive Interference
hardest to remember
Retroactive and Proactive Interference
memory loss
difficulty to express oneself
mood swings
confusion of time and place
vision changes
loss of executive functions
genes: risk and deterministic
heart/lung disease
Types of dementia
Alzheimer’s disease
Vascular dementia
Diffuse lewy body disease
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
Frontal lobe degeneration
Alcohol-related dementia

Medical history
Physical exam
Neurological exam
Mental status tests
Brain scanning

Cue-dependent theory
of forgetting
mental status test: mini-cog
brain imaging: MRI
Context dependent of forgetting
may be based on the environment

-Evidence comes from
Godden and Baddeley (1975)
who showed that
context cues
increase recall.

State dependent of forgetting
may be based on our
emotional and physical state (state).
comes from
Lang et al. (2001)
who showed that state is an important cue for retrieval of memor
Sternberg, R., Sternberg, K., (2012). Cognition, Sixth Edition, International Edition. Wadsworth: Cengage Learning, p. 235
The cortex shrivels up, damaging areas involved in thinking, planning and remembering. Shrinkage is especially severe in the hippocampus, an area of the cortex that plays a key role in formation of new memories.

Plaques, abnormal clusters of protein fragments, build up between nerve cells. Dead and dying nerve cells contain tangles, which are made up of twisted strands of another protein.
Plaques and tangles tend to spread through the cortex in a predictable pattern as Alzheimer's disease progresses. The rate of progression varies greatly.
Drug treatment
Support groups
Cognitive training.
Music/Singing therapy
Light therapy
Reminiscence therapy
Reality orientation
Physical activity/therapy

Retrograde Amnesia
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