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WIKILEAKS

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on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of WIKILEAKS

WIKILEAKS
WIKILEAKS
Done by:
Cassandra Lim Hui Min
Guan Xinyao
Low Guan Hong
Tan Si Tong
What is Wikileaks?
International online non-profit organisation

Publishes news leaks and classified media from anonymous sources

Initiated on 4th October 2006 in iceland by the organisation Sunshine Press

Claimed a data base of more than 1.2 million docments within a year of its launch.
Significant leaks
5th April 2010: Collateral Murder Video

Ethical Analysis
Are the actions of Wikileaks ethical?
Technical Issues
Security issue
Domain Name System(DNS)
Founder:Interesting Facts
At 16
: Began hacking
At 21
: Faced with 24 hacking charges
College dropout
1993
: Involved in founding of Australia's ISP
Founder: Interesting Facts
2008
: Bagged Economist Index on Censorsip award

2009
: Media award from Amnesty International

How WIKILEAKS works?
2011
: Listed as the top 100 most influential people by Times Magazine.
Goals of WIKILEAKS
To bring and leak important news and information to the public
Ensure whistleblowers and journalists not jailed for emailing sensitive and classified documents.
Significant leaks
July 2010: Released Afghan War diary

October 2010: Released Iraq war logs

28 November 2010: Collaborated with major global media organisation to release US state department diplomatic cables
Significant leaks
April 2011: Published secret files relating to Prisoner detained in Guantanamo Bay detention camp

8 April 2013: Published more than 1.7 million U.S. diplomatic and intelligence documents from the 1970s.
Legal Issues
Has WIKILEAKS violated any laws?
Principles of WIKILEAKS
The defence of freedom of speech and media publishing.
The improvement of common historical records
The support of the rights of all people



Some of the stories WIKILEAKS have broken
War, killings, torture and detention
Government, trade and corporate transparency
Corruption, finance, taxes, trading
Censorship technology and internet filtering
Espionage Act
Copyright Act
Theft of Government property
Espionage Act
§ 793(a) Gathering, transmitting or losing defense information
Crime if
“Whoever, for the purpose of obtaining information respecting the national defense with intent or reason to believe that the information is to be used to the
injury of the United States
, or to
the advantage of any foreign nation
…”

Espionage Act
#1 First Amendment of the Act
“Prohibit the making of any law …abridging the freedom of speech, infringing on the freedom of the press ...”
WikiLeaks cannot be prosecuted
Julian Assange is entitled to protection as a publisher of WikiLeaks

Is there any violation?
Espionage Act
#2 Never been used against a media organisation
unlikely that Wikileaks violated the Espionage Act



Is there any violation?
Aim:
Make illegal the publishing of names of millitary or intelligence community informants
Prevent anyone from compromising national security
Securing Human Intelligence and Enforcing Lawful Dissemination Act (SHIELD)
Theft of government property
Crime to receive or keep stolen government property
Applies to anyone who stole or retain the material
Theft of Government Property
Based on past cases:
Provider of information-prosecuted
Receiver/publisher of information-not prosecuted
Copyright Act
Copyright Owners have exclusive rights to control reproduction, distribution, public performance, and display of their copyrighted works.
However....
Any work “prepared by an officer or employee of the US government as part of that person’s official duties” is not entitled to domestic copyright protection under US law

What are ethics?
Principle of conduct governing an individual or a group
Principle of right and wrong that guides behavior
Revolves around moral issues
Reveals weakness in government which can be potentially used by enemies

In 2009, Wikileaks published detailed technical vulnerabilities in actively employed U.S. Army’s countermeasures against improvised explosive devices

National Security
Conclusion
Does Wikileak bring more harm than good or more good than harm?
Breach of privacy
Genuine public interest vs what the public may be interested in
How much should Wikileaks disclose?
Reactions to Wikileaks
Government
Australia
: Wikileaks was added to the blacklist of sites however the blacklisting has been removed.
China
: Block all traffic to websites with “wikileaks” in the URL


Government
Germany
: Home of Theodor Reppe was raided after Wikileaks released the ACMA blacklist. However Wikileaks' site was not affected.

Iceland
: Julian Assange said that his group of volunteers came under intense surveillance.

Corporations
Facebook
:Wikileaks fan page was deleted on April 2010 but restored on December 2010.


Corporations
Apple
: Application is removed

Several companies cut ties with Wikileaks.

Corporations
Pro Wikileaks:
Some company support acting as channels for donations for Wikileaks.

Financial Industry
Unprecedented global financial blockade by major finance companies

Financial Industry
Hunton & William
: Assemble a group of security specialists to put a stop on Wikileaks.


Financial Industry
Pro Wikileaks
:
Mirrors of Wikileaks site appeared.
Operation Payback
Organisers commence DDoS attacks on websites of bank who had withdrawn banking facilities from Wikileaks

Are these actions justified?
Not justified to a large extent
Infringement of privacy & personal space
Violating WikiLeaks right to freedom of expression
Public have the right to know
Used illegal means

Security Issue
Little care was taken to ensure that information only reach those who really need it.
The database which contains such sensitive and confidential materials could be accessed by thousands.
Security Issue:
The Bradley Manning Case
Security Issue:
DNS
A protocol used to translate friendly names on the Internet(e.g.wikileaks.org) to their numeric IP address (213.251.145.96)

DNS
EveryDNS.net is the initial DNS provider for Wikileaks.
It is also the largest DNS provider in the world.
At 10PM EST, December 2, 2010, it made a difficult decision to terminate their service to Wikileaks.
A lot of people cannot access to Wikileaks site
DNS
They claim that Wikileaks violated the provision which states that:

"Member shall not interfere with another Member’s use and enjoyment of the Service or another entity’s use and enjoyment of similar services."
DNS
Wikileaks.org has become the target of multiple distributed denial of service (DDOS) attacks.
Threaten the stability of EveryDNS.net’s infrastructure


DNS
EasyDNS.net after suffering backlash due to wrong identification have decided to provide DNS service for Wikileaks
Manning had access to classified documents from The Pentagon, Secret Internet Protocol Router Network (SIPRNet)
Accessible to anyone with proper security clearance
Manning, downloaded thousands of documents from SIPRNet and passed them on to Wikileaks

"WikiLeaks.org domain killed by US everydns.net after claimed mass attacks KEEP US STRONG https://donations.datacell.com/"


DNS
Should information be filtered such that it only reaches those who need access to such information?
However the threat of DoS and political pressure still exists and Wikileaks still have to fight to stay online!
Technology used by Wikileaks
Wikileaks provide a high security anonymous drop box fortified by cutting-edge cryptographic information technologies.
maximum protection to our sources.
United States
: Wikileaks is currently blocked. Jacob Appelbaum was detained at the airport. He spoke on behalf of Wikileaks at the Hackers on Planet Earth Conference in NY city
Government
Consider bringing criminal charges on Wikileaks & Assange for the Afghan war leaks and to limit Assange’s travel over international borders
Conclusion
Assange described himself in a private conversation as "the heart and soul of this organisation, its founder, philosopher, spokesperson, original coder, organizer, financier, and all the rest".
Founder:Julian Assange
Full transcript