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toni villa

on 24 November 2014

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preventing nosocomial or healthcare-associated infections - HAIs
Medical Personnel
Sources of
Healthcare Associated Infections
Methods of Transmission
Advanced Age
Underlying Diseases
Severity of Illness
Immunocompromised Patients
Transplant Patients
Gastrointestinal Surgery
Exposure to Medical Devices
Heavy Exposure to Antimicrobial Therapy
Radiation Therapy
Prolonged Hospital Stay
Interinstitutional Transfer of Patient
Susceptible Hosts
Breaking the
Chain of Infection
Hand Hygiene
Personal Protective Equipment

Respiratory Hygiene
Cough Etiquette
What is
Infection Control
Invasive Devices
Surgical Equipment
Exam room
Patient Flora
Medical Personnel
Contact Transmission
Direct transmission
occurs when the transfer of microorganisms results from direct physical contact between an infect or colonized individual and a susceptible host.

Indirect transmission
involves the transfer of an infectious agent to a susceptible host via an intermediate object or fomite.
Bloodborne Transmission
occurs when blood or body fluid from an infected person enters another individual's body by needlesticks, human bites, cuts, abrasions, or through the mucous membranes.
Airborne Transmission
is an infectious agent that spreads via droplet nuclei. They can survive outside the body and remain suspended in the air for long periods of time. They infect via the upper and lower respiratory tracts which can cause Tuberculosis (TB), chicken pox and measles

Chain of Infection
Fecal-Oral Transmission
is associated with organisms that infect the digestive system.
Microorganisms enter the body through ingestion of contaminated food and water.
Inside the digestive system they multiply and are shed from the body into the feces.
If proper hygiene and sanitation practice are not done, the feces may contaminate the water supply through inadequate sewage treatment and water filtration.

Educating yourself in ways to prevent the transmission of infection
Droplet Transmission o
ccurs when respiratory droplets generated via coughing, sneezing, or talking.
Used to prevent the transmission of bloodborne pathogens
Hands or other exposed skin should be thoroughly washed following an exposure incident and immediately after removing gloves or other personal protective equipment
Hand Washing Procedure
1. Remove and dispose of gloves.
2. Wet hands with running water.
3. Apply liquid, bar, or powder soap.
4. Wash for at least 15 seconds, cleaning all surfaces
5. Do not touch faucet after washing.
6. Dry hands with paper towels.
7. Turn off faucets with the paper towels.
Alcohol-based Hand Sanitizers
Antimicrobial Wipes or towelettes
If your hands are visibly dirty you however, must wash with soap and water.
Vector-borne Transmission
Vectors are animals such as flies, ticks, rats and dogs that are capable of transmitting diseases. Most common vector for disease is the mosquito.
Transfer disease through their saliva that comes in contact with their host when they are withdrawing blood.
Vectors of malaria, West Nile virus, dengue fever, and yellow fever
1.7 million people per year get an infection during a hospital stay.
PPE is equipment worn to
minimize exposure to serious
workplace injuries and illnesses.
Injuries and illnesses may result
from contact with:
Personal Protective Equipment may include:
face masks/shields
safety glasses
ear plugs or muffs
hard hats
coveralls or body suits
A respiratory infection can be spread by an ill person who coughs or sneezes. The droplets released can travel several feet reaching the nose or mouth of others causing illness.
Elements of Respiratory Hygiene
Educate patient, families, visitors and care providers
Perform proper cough etiquette
Offer patients with signs and symptoms of respiratory illness to wear a surgical mask while waiting in common areas or move them into an exam room away from others
Provide patients with tissues, non-touch receptacles, alcohol gel, and surgical masks in waiting areas
Space seating in waiting areas at least 3 feet apart
Place cough etiquette signs where the general public can see.
98,987 people in the US die annually from HAIs.
Proper Cough Etiquette
Cover nose and mouth with a tissue
Use the crook of the elbow to contain respiratory droplets
Use tissues to contain respiratory secretions and discard in nearest waste receptacle after use.
Perform hand hygiene immediately after
Cover cuts with bandages and wear gloves for protection
Standard Precautions

Transmission-Based Precautions
Assume every person is infected or colonized with an organism that could be transmitted in a healthcare setting.
Hand Hygiene
Personal Protective Equipment
Mouth, Nose, Eyes Protection
Respiratory Hygiene/Cough Etiquette
Patient-Care Equipment and Instruments
Care of Environment
Textiles and Laundry
Assume patients are diagnosed with or suspected of having highly transmissible diseases in addition to Standard Precautions
Airborne Precautions
Patient Placement
Airborne Infection Isolation Room
Keep door closed if not entering or exiting
Wear surgical mask
Observe Respiratory Hygiene/Cough Etiquette
Patient Transport
Limit Transport-medically necessary purposes
Patient wear Surgical mask
Hand Hygiene
according to Standard Precautions
Wear NIOSH-approved N95 or higher-level respirator protection when entering room
Contact Precautions
Gloves and Gown
Don gloves/gown upon entry into patient's room
Wear gloves/gown with patient contact or surrounding surfaces and remove before leaving
Patient Transport
Limit transport
Contained and covered infected areas
Remove and dispose contaminated PPE
Don clean PPE to handle patient at destination
Droplet Precautions
Don mask upon entry to patient's room
Hand Hygiene
According to Standard Precautions
Patient Placement
Private room, if possible
Maintain spatial separation of 3 feet from other patients
Patient Transport
Limit transport and movement- medically necessary
Patient wear mask and follow respiratory Hygiene/Cough Etiquette
Presented By:
Toni Rose Villaflores
Elma Lynn Ibit
Iman Leon Guerrero
Marie Awa
Chalotte Manaois
Eilleen Tulabot
Full transcript