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FILM EDITING

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by

Paul Allen

on 28 January 2016

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Transcript of FILM EDITING

// DIGITAL EDITING.
CREATING PACE & MOOD
SESSION 01 // EDITING DEVELOPMENT
< NOTES >
PURPOSE EDITING
NARRATIVE & AUDIENCE
EARLY CINEMA 'NO EDITING'
Cutting Edge Documentary [PT1]
ASSIGNMENT BRIEF // CROSS OVER
TIPS AND TECHNIQUES
FINAL CUT PRO EDITING TUTORIALS // TIPS // HINTS
0.01> NEW PROJECT
0.02> IMPORT CLIPS
0.03> IN & OUT+VIEWING
0.04> PRIME TOOLS

WHAT IS EDITING?
editing is the art, technique, and practice of assembling shots into a coherent sequence.

putting stuff in order so it tells a story properly and makes stuff look pretty cool, like the matrix and making dead island look better than it actual was...
THE 6 RULES OF WALTER MURCH
01) Emotion: 51%
Is it true to the emotion of the moment?
02) Story: 23%
Does it advanced the story?
03) Rhythm: 10%
Does it occur at a moment that is rhythmically interesting and “right”?
04) Eye-Trace: 7%
Does it acknowledge eye-trace (the concern with the location and movement of the audience’s focus of interest within the frame?
05) Two-dimensional Plane of Screen: 5%
Does it respect “planarity” (the grammar of three dimensions transposed by photography to two)?
06) Three-dimensional Space of Action: 4%
Does it respect three-dimensional continuity of the actual space of where people are in the room and in relation to one another?
Walter Murch's 6 Rules apply that you should edit Subjectively (Emotion & Bias) over Objectively (Facts and 'Laws').

But...

Editing is a natural flow and can be edited based on gut feelings, heart rate and even the blinking of eyes* in actors on set.


'[editing] is partly to anticipate, partly to control the thought processes of the audience, to give them what they want and/or what they need just before they have to ask for it—to be surprising yet self-evident at the same time.'
- Walter Murch.
Restricted Narrative.
Unrestricted Narrative.
Flash backs.
Slow-motion.
Jump Cuts.
Quick Cuts.
Continuation / Realistic.
Montage.
Transitions
TASK 01: FIND AN EXAMPLE.
Inform
Persuade
Entertain
Educate
Thomas Edison.
Lumiere Brothers.
Edwin Porter.
DW Griffith.
Lev Kuleshov.
Sergei Eisenstein.
In camera editing.
Cutting.
Shot A + Shot B = narrative.
Language.
Emotion.
Change Time.
Scare Audience.
Take out the bad parts.
Manipulation / Illusion
35mm Film (Linear)
24 Frames Per Second

Less is More.

Editing as an art form is
Just over 100 years old

'Invisible Art' - narrative

Inform and Illusion
Moving Image Practical Unit
Shoot >> Edit
WORKING ON BRIEF & PROJECTS
Review Footage. Understand the Narrative / Emotion.
Less is more. Always.
Build up to main event - scare, laugh, action.
Hold edit creates realism and tension.
Fast cuts and jumps cuts to break tension.
Feel the Rhythm and beats. Pace and Flow.
https://documentation.apple.com/en/finalcutpro/usermanual/Final%20Cut%20Pro%207%20User%20Manual%20(en).pdf
SESSION 02 // TRAILER EDITING
< NOTES >
EDITING TASK // 01
TRAILER EXAMPLES
TRAILER PURPOSE
CREATE A TRAILER OF 90 SECS / ### FRAMES
0>) USE THE CLOVER FIELD FOOTAGE (REVIEW)
0>) ASSEMBLE THE TRAILER (I/O)
0>) CREATE TRANSITIONS*
0>) ADD TITLES** (CLOVERFIELD)

1>) WW2 US NUKE FOOTAGE
1>) CUT IT DOWN INTO A TRAILER***
1>) DOWLOAD & ADD AUDIO / SOUNDTRACK
1>) ADD TITLES**** (CREATE OWN TITLE)

* DISSOLVES / DIP TO BLACK / CROSS-DISSOLVES
** FIND AND DOWNLOAD/SAVE CLOVER FIELD IMAGE OR MOVING TITLE
*** CHOOSE GENRE (HORROR, WAR, DOCU, PROPAGANDA, COMEDY...)
**** ADD & CREATE TITLES IN PREMIERE OR PHOTOSHOP..
SUICIDE SQUAD
INCEPTION
NUMBER OF CUTS?
FEELING / EMOTION
CUTS PER MINUTE
> INFORM
> PERSUADE
> ENTERTAIN
> EDUCATE
"Sell the Movie / Product"
SESSION // 03 TRANSITIONS & DEVELOPMENT
AIMS & OBJECTIVES //
Be able to insert a transition between two clips
Understand the purpose that individual transitions serve.

Identify and implement the ideal transition effect for a specific purpose.
Use transition effects and an appropriate soundtrack to create a montage sequence.
YOU MUST
YOU SHOULD
YOU COULD
• Time passing
• Sudden realisation
• Dramatic pause
• Pass out
• Dream
TASK // 01 : RESEARCH TRANSITIONS.
IN PAIRS:
Write what is the purpose of a transition?

Research and find transitions in trailers, games, movies etc.

Present those clips and explain what is happening.
(Technically and Conceptually)
TASK // 02 : EDITING TRANSITIONS
INDIVIDUAL:
Set up a new Premiere Pro Project (correctly).

Import clips and footage into bin / asset panel.

Assemble an edit onto the timeline.

Apply techniques and transitions to create a meaning.
COMPLEX EDITING
FUNDAMENTAL TRANSITIONS
TASK // 03 : EVERYONE LOVES A MONTAGE
INDIVIDUAL or PAIRS:
Set up a new Premiere Sequence.

Import clips and footage into bin.

Assemble an edit onto the timeline with transitions.

Apply soundtrack (use youtube & youtube-mp3.org) to the montage.

Export the video clip / montage
MONTAGE TECHNIQUE
SESSION //04 CROSS CUTTING & REDUBBING
Cross Cutting
Split Screen
Kuleshov Effect
AIMS & OBJECTIVES //
Be understand the uses of the split-screen and cross cutting techniques.

Redubbed some audio, previously recorded, onto a scene.

Be able to implement the split-screen and cross cutting techniques to show the passing of time in scene.
Be able to complete your redubbed scene.

Be able to creatively implement the split-screen and cross cutting techniques to show the passing of time in the scene.

YOU MUST
YOU SHOULD
YOU COULD
TASK 01 // CREATE A HAND BOOK
PAIRS:
Create a hand book for Premiere Pro CC

In pairs design a illustrated document screen grabbing PPCC for setting up a project, importing and assembling a simple project.

The best one will be used on moodle for hints and tips.
TASK 02 // DEVELOP A CROSS CUT / SPLIT SCREEN
INDIVIDUALLY:
Find two clips from Youtube that are opposite.

Use keepvideo to download them and import the clips.

Assemble a simple edit / sequence as a Cross cut.

Make another sequence and use the same clips to create a split screen video.
SESSION 05 // JUMP CUTTING & RECAP 02
AIMS & OBJECTIVES OF SESSION //
MUST
Understand the principles and purposes of jump cut technique.
Answer at least 50% of the questions in the recap quiz.
Start assessment on History of editing.
Redubbed some audio, previously recorded, onto a scene.

SHOULD
Create a jump cut sequence.
Answer at least 75% of the questions in the recap quiz.

COULD
Be able to complete your redubbed scene.
Answer 100% of the questions in the recap quiz.
Have a draft and plan for the assessment on editing.
EXAMPLES OF JUMP CUT
TASK 01 // ANALYSE JUMP CUTS
INDIVIDUALLY:
Watch one of the clips and make notes of the purpose of the jump cut. Ask yourself 'what is it doing to the story and emotion?'
PURPOSE & TECHNICAL ASPECTS OF JUMP CUT TECHNIQUE
IS IT WRONG? DOES IT WORK?
Jump cuts occur when cutting between two sections of footage shot from the same exact camera angle, for example in an interview.

Jump cuts can be jarring. They draw attention to the process of filmmaking and editing, which can take the audience out of the story, so traditionally they are viewed as something to be covered up. However, it's also because jump cuts draw attention to what is otherwise supposed to go un-noticed that they can be used in strategic and creative ways.

So they disrupt the viewer; breaks 'realism' and continuity and create emphasis on the action.
TASK 02 // CREATE JUMP CUT SEQUENCE
INDIVIDUALLY:
Create a jump cut sequence in FCP. Find a youtube clip, download it using keepvid.

Import the footage, assemble the sequence on the timeline and use the razor blade tool (B) and arrow / move tool (A).

Create a feeling of passing time, urgency, humour or tension.
TASK 03 // RECAP QUIZ 102
INDIVIDUALLY:
Play along with the Kahoot quiz (edit recap 102).

Remember any incorrect answers (write them down).
TASK 04 // HIP HOP MONTAGE.
PAIRS:
Review this clip, watch and analyse. Darren Aronofsky (director) created and name this technique (1998+). Recreate this sequence.
TASK X // ASSESSMENT EDITING HISTORY
A: Understand the development of moving image production
B: Know the techniques and transitions used in digital editing for moving image

Your guide can take the form of a timeline (tiki-toki.com*), PowerPoint, Prezi, video or audio commentary.
*
• The Purpose of editing
• Early cinema - no editing, in camera editing.
• Key Editors – Lumiere Brothers, Georges Méliès, Walter Murch.
• Continuity Editing – 180 degree rule, matching action, shot reverse shot
• Montage Editing – Kuleshov effect
• Technical developments – Linear to Non-linear editing.
• Other techniques – Jump cut, split screen, chroma key, cutting to the beat.
• Transition Types - Cut, fade, dissolve, wipe.
• Edit Types – Action edit, screen position edit, match edit, concept edit.

https://prezi.com/c9cdieuz5gsc/unit-9-digital-editing-for-moving-image/
ANOTHER RESOURCE:
SESSION 06 // DUBBING & DEVELOPMENT
What is Dubbing?
dialogue (v/o), automated dialogue replacement (ADR), effects, foley & music.
TASK 01 // REDUB SEQUENCE
INDIVIDUALLY:
Take your audio files and import them into FCP. Download the sequence / clip from youtube and keepvid.
Remove the audio from the video using command+L (unlinks the two). Now reselect audio and delete.
Line up the audio using the wave form on the audio clip to the video.

Export using quicktime conversion the final .mov file.
TASK 02 // EDITING DEVELOPMENT
EDITING IN A NUTSHELL
SMALL GROUPS (3/4):
Analyse this video. Make notes and make sure your info is correct.
With your info in your groups you are to create a Kahoot quiz.

Make it between 5 to 10 questions.

Add pictures to make it awesome.
TASK 02.2 // KAHOOT.IT
IN GROUPS (3/4):
http://mrseteachesmath.blogspot.co.uk/2014/12/how-to-create-kahoot.html
Create the quiz. Use this link / blog site to help you.
TASK 03 // ASSESSMENT CONTINUATION
INDIVIDUALLY:
Work on your editing history assessment.
YOU
MUST
have your planning complete by the end of this session to show your tutor.

YOU
SHOULD
have chosen your resource that you will submit.

YOU
COULD
have the first sections already completed.
SESSION 07 // RE-EDIT & GENRE CONVENTIONS
AIMS & OBJECTIVES:
You
Must
:
Understand how to render and export your project file in the necessary format.

You
Should
:
Be able to export an FCP project for multiple formats.

You
Could
:
Create a creative trailer for a film using knowledge and of editing techniques.

MARY POPPINS - GONE BAD
GAME OF THRONES - COMEDY
TASK 01 // RESEARCH GENRE TRAILERS
PAIRS:
Choose a genre and watch 2 or 3 trailers of that genre. List all the editing conventions that you find within that type of genre trailer.
Editing Techniques.
CROSS-CUTTING. SPLIT SCREEN.
MATCH EDIT. CONTINUITY EDITING.
JUMP CUT.
MONTAGE or AUDIO LINK
TRANSACTIONS;
DISSOLVE (FADE). CUT.
FADE IN/OUT. FLASH FRAME.
WIPE.

Key Editors.
LUMIERE BROTHERS.
EDWIN S. PORTER.
D.W. GRIFFTH.
THOMAS EDISON.
GEORGE MELIES.
WALTER MURCH.
MICHAEL KAHN.
ARTHUR SCHMIDT.
LEE SMITH.
http://www.filmsite.org/bestfilmediting10.html
http://whatculture.com/gaming/20-best-gaming-cutscenes-ever.php
ASSESSMENT PERIOD FOR HISTORY OF EDITING
Aims & Objectives:
You
MUST
:
Work on and complete your assessment.

Submit your assessment file through moodle.

Recap and final guidance on assessment using the last and super final Kahoot! quiz. (Ever, sad face).

You
SHOULD
:
Correctly answer 75% of the answers on the recap quiz.

You
COULD
:
Come in the Top 5 of the answers on the recap quiz.

Submit your work early and support peers in submission.
TASK 01 // KAHOOT QUIZ. EDIT RECAP
INDIVDUALLY:
Use your phones or computer to log on to Kahoot.it
Use the game PIN and enter your nickname (you know the rules by now).
TASK 02 // ASSESSMENT COMPLETION
INDIVIDUALLY:
Continue to complete your editing assessment.
Set yourself targets to check and use the checklist.
Use this Prezi (on moodle) to help with your notes.
TASK 03 // READ AND FINALISE
INDIVIDUALLY:
DOUBLE CHECK ALL INFO BEFORE SUBMISSION.
Read through your own OR ask a peer or tutor to read and check spelling, grammar.
IMPORTANT:
Make sure you Reference any work that is not your own.
Last 30mins
SESSION 08 // CHROMA KEYING (GREENSCREEN)
AIMS & OBJECTIVES:
You
Must
:
Understand how to add and effect green screen footage with some assistance (and in pairs).

You
Should
:
Be able create a good standard of keying using the tutorial as support.

You
Could
:
Create a creative and near professional green-screen footage sequence individually.

VFX (KEYING & ROTOSCOPING)
49 out of 50 top grossing movies in 2014 used VFX.
Greenscreen (Chroma Keying) is used throughout.
TASK 01 // FCP CHROMA KEYER.
Individually or Pairs //
Import your footage into a New FCP project. Save your project before continuing. Place the green-screen footage onto V2 (video track 2) on the timeline. Drop 'chroma keyer' effect onto the footage.
Final Cut King Chromakey Tutorial
USE THIS YOUTUBE
TUTORIAL TO HELP
GREEN SCREEN 04 BAGROUNDS HD 1080p
Best Explosion - Green Screen HD 1080p
Green Screen 40+ essential effects
DOWNLOAD USING KEEPVID.COM
DOWNLOAD USING KEEPVID.COM
DOWNLOAD USING KEEPVID.COM
PREMIERE PRO EDITING TUTORIALS // TIPS // HINTS
premiere-pro-cheat-sheet-2
0.10 > NEW PROJECT (DEFAULT)
0.21 > PRE-SET CAMERA FORMAT*
0.22 > OR CHOOSE OWN SETTINGS
0.30 > IMPORT FOOTAGE
0.40 > MARK IN/OUT FOOTAGE
0.50 > DRAG/ADD TO SEQUENCE
* KNOW YOUR FOOTAGE.
MODERN / YOUTUBE EDITING
Full transcript