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06 Heart

Lab 06
by

Rob Mead

on 17 July 2016

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Transcript of 06 Heart

Lab 06
Heart
The heart is a muscle.
The heart is "just" a muscle — and a hollow one at that.
Your heart is about the size of your fist.
It is centrally located beneath your breastbone
sternum
(breastbone).
Heart muscle is unlike other types of muscle.
Cardiac muscle is
involuntary
striated
muscle tissue.
The heart sits inside the pericardium.
The pericardium is a tough double-walled sac that contains the heart.
The heart has three layers.
The
epi
cardium is the outside layer.
The human heart has four chambers.
The heart is basically a pump with four
chambers
.
The heart pumps blood out in two directions.
This video explains the direction that the blood flows as
the deoxgenated blood gets sent to the lungs
and then
the oxgenated blood gets sent out to the rest of the body
...
How about a story for the
deoxygenated blood
?
Victor Cruz
A story about
oxygenated blood
?
Prince Valiant
Some more about the blood...
The heart and the lungs really are
integral
to one another...
Is blood really a type of connective tissue?
...it touches all of the body's organs...
Where does blood come from?
Blood is made in bone marrow (usually found in the flat bones).
Why is blood red?
Red blood cells contain a protein called
hemoglobin
.
What is Fe?
There are lots of scientific words that start with Fe that mean "iron," but Ferris wheel is the only non-scientific word that sticks out.
Everything works together...
Unlike skeletal muscles, it is not connected to any bones.
Like the lungs, it is controlled by the
autonomic
nervous system.
It weighs about 300 gm (±50 gm depending on your age and sex).
And your heart-rate is about 72 beats/minute.
It is
involuntary
because the heart beats by itself.
It is striated because the fibers are stringy and striped.
The smooth muscles are involuntary and the skeletal muscles are striated, but only the cardiac muscles are both.
It is woven in a crisscrossing mesh pattern.
The pericardium sac is composed of connective tissue, anchored to the surrounding structures.
The Greek word
pericardium
combines
peri
(around)
The
myo
cardium is the middle layer.
And the
endo
cardium is the innermost layer.
As the heart muscles contract, the blood gets pushed from one chamber to the next.
It has two atria (to receive blood)
Do you need
mnemonic
devices for these
progressions
?
Vena Cava => Right Atrium => Right Ventricle => Pulmonary Artery
Pulmonary Vein => Left Atrium => Left Ventricle => Aorta
Red Apple
VelociRaptor
Park Avenue
LA hat
Las Vegas
Alligator
The blood can be thought of as connective tissue (because of where it is found), but it can also be viewed as an organ (because of how it behaves).
Blood accounts for about 7% of your body weight, and it has a density of about 1.06 kg/l (about 6% denser than water).
...it is made in the bones and then
migrates
outwards...
...it contains potential molecular fibers in the form of fibrinogen.
...blood is different from other forms of connective tissue which tends to stay in one place and to perform one specific function.
Blood is 92% water, but there are many
constituent
parts to blood.
Red cells transport oxygen.
In adults, this femur would typically contain the yellow (fatty) marrow. But in young people, it would still have some red marrow in it.
The empirical formula for hemoglobin is:
738
1166
812
203
2
As you know, iron "rusts" in the presence of oxygen, it turns red.
In other words, your blood "rusts" when exposed to oxygen.
In 1628, William Harvey published
Du Motu Cordis
in which he
postulated
that the heart was a pump that circulated
deoxygenated blood
through the lungs and
oxygenated blood
through the rest of the body.
But the blood itself is an important organ.
(In other words, you do not have to think about telling your heart to beat.)
About the same as a Big Mac with Cheese.
Sandwiched
between your right and left lungs.
McDonalds serves about 75 burgers every second!
McDonalds serves 2.5 billion burgers a year.
... so it will beat about 2.5 billion times in your lifetime.
Skeletal muscle and smooth muscle tend to look like their fibers are running parallel to each other.
(So the heart will not bounce around inside your chest).
and
kardion
(heart).
You
already know the English words
perimeter
and cardiac.
It is made of tough connective tissue — like the pericardium.
It is made of muscle tissue.
It is made of smooth tissue that comes in contact with the moving blood cells.
The heart pumps in two directions:
and to the body (to deliver oxygen).
to the lungs (to get oxygen)
and two ventricles (to discharge blood).
Time out for a
transfusion
But pictures of the heart and of the
circulatory
system are generally in two main colors:
The coloring is added by the artist to help you understand
the direction
of the flow of the blood.
Human blood is
always
red.
> and blue for deoxygenated blood

> red for oxygenated blood
Lobsters, crabs, spiders, and snails have copper (instead of iron) in their blood to "fix" oxygen.
Contrary to popular belief, Prince Charles is not a lobster, crab, spider, or snail.
Vena Cava
Right Atrium
Right Ventricle
Pulmonary Artery
Pulmonary Vein
Left Ventricle
Left Atrium
Aorta
Yes. Because...
However...
White cells fight infection.
Platelets
help with clotting.
C H N O S Fe
738 Carbon atoms,
1166 Hydrogen atoms,
812 Nitrogen atoms,
203 Oxygen atoms,
2 Sulfur atoms, and
1 Fe atom...
...and that one little Fe atom turns red when exposed to oxygen.
This means the molecule has:
Fe is the chemical symbol for iron and is short for
ferrum
(Latin).
Rusty the Red Panda
Blood is always red. But "arterial" blood (
freshly oxygenated
) is bright red and "venous" blood (
freshly deoxygenated
) is slighly
cyanotic
.
Thank you William Harvey for figuring this all out!
Not bad for someone who didn't even own a microscope...
Full transcript