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Native Indians 1860-1900
Transcript of Native Indians 1860-1900
RED CLOUD WAR
John Bozeman discovered a shortcut to the Montana gold fields in the winter of 1862-1863.
The main drawback for the Bozeman Trail was that it crossed the hunting grounds of the Lakota and Cheyenne Indians.
The wagon trains that attempted to cross were warned by the tribes to turn back. Some did, but others, like Bozeman, did not.
The emigrants who followed the Bozeman Trail competed with the Indians for the resources near the trail.
On July 20, the warriors of Red Cloud (A Native Indian leader) attacked a wagon train of 37 soldiers and civilians, killing two, at Crazy Woman Fork of the Powder River. Other civilian wagon trains were also attacked and nearly all civilian traffic on the Bozeman Trail ceased.
The members of the Cheyenne tribe faced extreme hardships.
In response to starvation, they started attacking passing wagons. Although the passengers were left unharmed, all the food was taken.
Even after this, the Indians failed to gain the sympathy of the army.
In 1864 when the Cheyennes started stealing cattle, the army devised an attack on one of the villages in ‘Cedar Canyon’.
It is thought this was done to punish the Indians, yet when peace parties went to negotiate, they were shot dead and then the village was wiped out.
THE BATTLE OF LITTLE BIGHORN
• The Battle of the Little Big Horn was the most decisive defeat for the US army during the whole of the Indian Wars.
The US government wanted the Black Hills for gold. They tried to move the tribe onto small reservations. The Sioux refused and were declared hostile. The Native Indians were being treated badly and forced to do many things.
Overall, the Native Indians were treated very poorly which led to many conflicts and battles between the Indians and the White Americans. Finally, the White Americans over came the Indians spreading their culture all the way to the West (following their beliefs of the manifest destiny). To them they were fulfilling their destiny and duty.
THE TREATY OF FORT WISE
The Treaty of Fort Wise was signed in 1861. It was between the USA and some Native Indians. Many Cheyenne tribe members opposed to this treaty since only a minority of chiefs signed this contract, and they did not get the agreement from the rest of the tribe. There were many mixed views due to the signing of this treaty which lead to key events.
Why was Custer defeated?
• He worked alone and did not listen to the orders
• Instead of going round the mountains he went through them, tiring his troops.
• He divided his forces into 3
• He expected the Sioux warriors to run
• He was arrogant and over confident, he ignored the advice of his scouts
• The Sioux leaders were expert and experienced leaders
• The Native Americans thought that the war was their last chance so fought with desperation
• Custer had poor information
What happened at the Battle?
• General Philip Sheridan was sent to defeat the Sioux.
• Gibbon was set to march up the Little Bighorn river, and Colonel George Custer was ordered to march round the Wolf mountains, as part of a two-pronged attack on the Sioux camp.
• The Sioux had been joined by the Cheyenne and Arapaho, making an army of more than 3,000 warriors, armed with Winchester repeating rifles.
• Custer marched his men through (not round) the Wolf mountains, to arrive at the Sioux camp first.
• Custer divided his 600 men into three groups.
Custer's last stand...
• Custer headed north of the village with 215 men.
• The Sioux cut off both Reno and Custer. Benteen rescued Reno, but Custer and all of his troops lost their lives.
• The Sioux withdrew when Terry and Gibbon arrived.
Under the terms of this treaty, Black Kettle who was the leader of the Cheyenne tribe, agreed to move his people to Sand creek. But, here the land was infertile and dry and survival here was very hard for the Indians.
LITTLE CROWS WAR
Little Crow was a chief of the tribe Dakota. On August 4, 1862, about five hundred Dakota broke into food warehouses. The agent decided to talk it through. At the conference, Little Crow pointed out that the Dakota were owed the money to buy the food and told them that "When men are hungry, they help themselves."
It is officially known as the Dakota war, but is called little crow’s war since he agreed to lead the tribe into battle. Although he seemed brave, Little crow knew that at any moment the white men could send in reinforcements that would immediately outnumber the indian army.
Although they achieved in attacking many men from the lowers Sioux, the Indians were caught by canons on Fort Ridgley. Little Crow was injured along many other Indians. From then, wherever the Dakota tried to attack, the attempts were thwarted by the soldiers and white civivlians of the area. In the end, Little Crow's forces were caught at Battle of Wood Lake on September 23, 1862, and Little Crow was forced to flee to Canada.
A few days later, August 17, 1862, some Dakota people crossed paths with a group of white men. 5 white men were killed. This act of rebellion was just the beginning, and very soon, the tribe’s hunger mixed with hatred led to Little Crows war in 1862.
OTHER CAUSES FOR DISPUTE
Concentration of Native American land
Native Americans on small reservations
Opening up Native American territory
DIFFERENCES IN VIEWS
RACE (red skin)
ADAPTED TO PLAINS (Nomadic, tipis)
LOVED THE LAND (Land cannot be owned or sold)
GOVERNMENT AND LAWS (Chiefs, community spirit, horse stealing)
RELIGION (Spirits, young marriage, easy divorce)
WAR (Preserve life, ambush)
White Americans regarded Natives as subhuman.
White Americans demanded a settled, farming way of life.
White Americans believed that God had given them the right to '
subdue the earth'
, and they wanted to make money from it.
White observers declared that the Native Americans were
Christian preachers thought
'...the Indians have no religion, only ignorant superstition'.
White soldiers saw ambush as treachery and retreat as
'a total lack of courage'
The Plains Indians were nomadic, moving around to follow the herds of buffalo, which they hunted.
The Indians respected old people because they thought they had become wise with experience. The women were regarded as important in Indian society
Children were expected to behave well from an early age, but they were treated with love and kindness.
The Native Indians believed in the Great Spirit, Wakan Tanka. Native Indians believed that the earth was their '
' and belonged to all creatures that used it.
They lived in tipis.
THE MEDICINE CREEK TREATY
The Treaty of Medicine Creek was signed on December 26, 1854. Sixty-two leaders of major Western Washington tribes signed the treaty with Territorial Governor Isaac Stevens (1818-1862). The tribes ceded most of their lands in exchange for $32,500, designated reservations, and the right of access to traditional hunting and fishing grounds.
BATTLE OF SAND CREEK
The Fort Laramie Treaty of 1851 guaranteed ownership of some land to the Cheyenne and Arapahoe. However, many white Americans continued to set up homes on the plains. Tensions between new settlers and Native Americans were rising. A Cheyenne group accepted a new settlement with the Federal government. However Chief Black Kettle only represented part of the Native American tribes that lived in that area and some of the others were not so happy with this new treaty, the treaty of Fort Wise.
THE BATTLE OF THE WOUNDED KNEE
• In December 29 1890, a medicine man called Wovoka started a Ghost Dance – it was peaceful but the Army, fearing a rebellion, tried to arrest Sitting Bull, the leader taking part.
• Then when Sioux Chief Big Foot, trying to avoid the trouble, led his people to Wounded Knee Creek, they were massacred by the US Army. About 300 Native indians were killed, in the final clash between the Sioux and the federal troops.
BATTLE OF WASHITA
Custer and his troops were ordered to lead a campaign against the Cheyenne, who had been making raids on a few American cities.
On 27th November 1868, the two forces fought a bloody battle with gruesome casualties on both sides. Many woman and children were also killed.
The victory to the white Americans gave them a lot more power and confidence since this was their first major success.
In June 1864, John Evans attempted to isolate some Native Americans by inviting "friendly Indians" to camp near military forts and receive provisions and protection. He also called for volunteers to fill the military void left when most of the regular army troops were sent away.
The atrocities committed by the soldiers were initially praised, but then condemned as the circumstances of the massacre emerged.
Black Kettle survived and continued his peace efforts. In 1865, his followers accepted a new reservation in Indian Territory.
In August 1864, Evans met with some chiefs to forge a new peace.
Black Kettle moved his band to Fort Lyon where the commanding officer encouraged him to hunt near Sand Creek.
Chivington then moved his troops to the plains, and on November 29, attacked the Native Americans. Nine of Chivington's men were killed; 148 of Black Kettle's followers were slaughtered.
The Native Indians were frustrated by confinement, many warriors responded by terrorizing white settlements. This angered the white Americans and made the situation even tenser. On the reservation, however, the raiders were greeted as heroes, and their new status as warriors effectively undercut the authority of those chiefs who counseled peace. Kicking Bird was one of those accused of cowardice for attempting to establish close relations with whites. Because of this Kicking Bird decided to restore his status as one of the leading warriors.
Later he found the Kiowas and the following morning his forces attacked the Indian camp. However, McLellan realized that he was outnumbered and the Indians had more superior weapons. Kicking Bird led a charge on the disorganized cavalrymen. For the rest of the afternoon McLellan's men were attacked from all sides as they tried desperately to retreat. Finally, after the Kiowas cut off their attack early in the evening, the cavalry was able to escape. On July 14 the Sixth Cavalry returned to Fort Richardson. In his report McLellan praised Kicking Bird's superior generalship and called for larger forces to protect the frontier.
In the summer, he led his followers across the Red River. A small group of rebels broke away from the main party and terrorised a white village. In response, the Americans, assembled a force to fight the Indians. After reaching the terrorised village the cavalry resumed its search for Kicking Bird. Moving northwest, they pursued the Indians' trail for five days but failed to find the main group of Kiowas. McLellan claimed that Kicking Bird was difficult to track because he divided his party and skillfully masked his trail.
BATTLE OF WICHITA