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Transcript of Backwards Design
Stage 1: Desired Results
Stage 2: Evidence
Stage 3: Planning Learning
Backwards design starts with the end in mind. Backwards design lends itself well to the four fundamental components suggested by Morrison, Ross, Kalman, and Kemp. The first stage (Desired Results) in the backwards design model relates closely to the objectives component. In this stage, one must determine the essential content/skills the student needs to know and be able to do in order obtain mastery. Throughout this stage one would focus on task analysis and determine the essential objectives for the learner. How does the model you selected compare with the four fundamental components suggested by Morrison, Ross, Kalman and Kemp (2011) of Learners, Objectives, Methods, and Evaluation? Benefits: What do you see as the benefits or challenges
of using the model you located? Do you think the model is appropriate or could be adapted for use in developing web-based instruction? McTighe, J. & Wiggins, G. (1998).
Understanding by design. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Backwards design graphic can be found at:http://smpettigrove.wordpress.com/2012/04/30/127/ How does the model you selected compare with the four fundamental components suggested by Morrison, Ross, Kalman and Kemp (2011) of Learners, Objectives, Methods, and Evaluation? (Continued) During the second stage (Evidence) the designer would be paying particular attention to the evaluation methods that would be best to use to determine mastery of the objectives established. He/she would not only have to keep close in mind what the essential objectives were but also how the intended learner would best benefit from different forms of assessment. How does the model you selected compare with the four fundamental components suggested by Morrison, Ross, Kalman and Kemp (2011) of Learners, Objectives, Methods, and Evaluation? (Continued) The third stage (Planning for Learning) is probably the stage that focuses on all four fundamental components. During this stage, the designer would need to determine the methods and activities that would be used to teach the intended learner the content needed to master the objectives, the best ways to keep the learner engaged and focused during the learning, and the sequence that presented the content in the most efficient/coherent way. Thorough task analysis would provide specific and focused objectives for mastery of content.
Objectives and learner needs would be constantly considered throughout the design process.
Different types of assessments/evaluations would be designed to gather evidence of successful design/unsuccessful design. What do you see as the benefits or challenges
of using the model you located? Challenges: If this type of instructional design were used in other fields, besides education, it could be hard to focus the content to meet the needs of the learners if you were not directly involved with them on a daily basis.
As the designer, you might need a team of people to help design with this model if you weren't very knowledgeable about the content/skills that needed to be taught. This model would be very appropriate for web-based instruction since it requires the designer to keep the end goals and objectives in mind during the design. This aspect allows for the creation of very specific and focused content lessons. In web-based instruction, there is little time for tangents or the presentation of unnecessary material. This model provides a guide to really focus in on what is essential for students to know and be able to do to master the objectives.