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Motivation for travel

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Beatrice Grace Ü

on 6 July 2014

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Transcript of Motivation for travel

Physical motivators
Cultural motivators
Interpersonal motivators
.
.
Maslow's Theory
of travel motivation
Cross cultural exchanges, experiencing how other people live and fostering international understanding are some of the reasons to satisfy curiosity about other cultures, lifestyles and places .
Psychological needs
Self esteem needs
Self actualization
Motivation to Travel
Pleasure/ Personal
Travel
Travel provides the means for ego or self-enhancement. Travel to a poor country can provide the traveler with the feeling of superiority. Travel can also provide a means of mingling with wealthy and social elite.
Travels offers an opportunity to satisfy the urge to learn. Once an interest has been developed in a destination area and grows as knowledge increases.

Several studies of tourist motivations have listed various reasons why people travel. Some of these motivations listed in travel literature are
Motivation for travel
Escape
Relaxation
Relief of tension
Sunlust
Physical
Health
Family togetherness
Interpersonal relations
Roots or ethnics

Cultural experience
The greatest reason for travel can be summed up in one word, “escape” –escape
From the dull daily routine; escape from the familiar, the commonplace, the ordinary; escape from the job, the boss, the costumers, the house, and the accelerated pace of modern life.

The Need for Escape or Change

Travel Health
Interest in sports, either as a participants or spectator is attracting large segments of the population. People demand activity and excitement during their leisure hours to relieve them from the boredom of their work. They indulge in activities, such as hiking, surfing, scuba diving, mountaineering, and skiing. Millions attend a variety of games, such as basketball, baseball, tennis, soccer in the United States, Europe, and Latin America. The Olympic Games which is held every four years attract millions of tourist.
Sports
Status and Prestige
Travel for education
Is an important travel motivator, many people are urged to travel to satisfy personal values such as the search fpr spiritual experience, patriotism, and whole someness.
Personal values
Maintain social contacts
Convince oneself of one’s achievements
Show one’s importance to others
Status and prestige
Self-discovery
Cultural
Education
Professional/Business
Wanderlust
Interest in foreign areas; and
Scenery

.
Status and prestige motivators
include those related to physical rest, sports participation, beach recreation, relaxing entertainment, and other motivations directly connected with health
include the desire to know about other countries, their music, art, folklore, dances, paintings, and religion
pertain to meet other people, visit friends or relatives, escape from routine, from family, and neighbors
concern ego needs and personal development. Include in this group and trips related to business, conventions, study, and pursuit of hobbies and education
Travel as a Means to Satisfy a Need and Want
The key to understand tourist motivation is to view vacation travel as a vehicle to satisfy one’s needs and wants. Tourists do not go on a vacations just to relax and have fun, to experience another culture, or to educate themselves and their children. They take vacations in the belief that these vacation will satisfy, either completely or partially, various needs and wants

Relationship of Needs, Wants, and motives
The difference between a need and a want is awareness. It is the duty of people involving in marketing to convert needs into wants by making the individual aware of his need deficiencies. This awareness must be accompanied by motivation
-to escape or relieve tension.
Safety needs
-traveling for health and recreation
Social needs
-visiting friends and relatives
-competence and independence while traveling
-prestige, status and recognition
-goal of leisure
-state of being free from the urgent demands
of lower level needs
According to Russ Johnston, a marketing research director, everyone is searching for change. Travel can provide diversity. It removes a person from familiar surroundings to something that is new and exciting. For example, a business executive who travels with his wife from his home and stays overnight in a destination wishes to get away from the routines and demands of his family and profession. An employee who goes to a beach resort for a change from the daily routine.

Developments in the field of medicine have influenced travel for centuries,
giving rise to the concept of health tourism. The search for health and long life
has popularized the spas, seaside resorts, as well as sun resort. Majority of
people think of vacationing as a means of regaining one’s energy, interest, and enthusiasm for the job.

The mineral water of different springs were believed to cure different ailment,
such as rheumatism, heart and circulation disorders, diabetes, and problem of
the kidneys and gall bladder.

Health-related travel is not limited to trips to thermal springs. “Reducing ranches” attract middle-aged women with weight problems. Romania, with its restorative Gerovital attracts the elderly. Americans suffering from different maladies go to China or Hong Kong to undergo acupuncture or to the Philippines to consult faith-healers. As populations begin to age in industrialized societies, health tourism will become increasingly popular
Social Contact
Much travel grows out the social nature of people. Human beings are social animals. They need contact communication with others. They feel comfortable in a tour group. In the group, the traveler may develop friendships that may last for years. Some tour groups have reunions after the tour took place.
-People travelling for vacation
/ pleasure
-Non business travellers
-Concerned with the increase
in price of travel prices


Resort travelers
Family pleasure travelers


Elderly
Singles and couples
Classified into categories
Lack of money
Lack of time
Lack of Safety and
security
Physical disability

Family commitments
Lack of interests in travel
Fear in travel


Travel Constraints
Psychology of Travel
The Learning process of a tourist
A tourist will buy a vacation package if he has learned that the purchase will satisfy an important need. The tourist compares various alternatives with a list of criteria to determine which alternatives will most likely satisfy a particular motive. This inclination may be positive or negative, depending on how well a chosen alternative will meet the motivation. The number of alternatives will vary according to the characteristics of travelers. Travelers who have previously visited many foreign destinations have a larger number of alternatives to choose from than those who have not. A destination will be included as an alternative if the destination has previously satisfied the traveler. The level of satisfaction depends on one’s expectation of a situation, as well as one’s perception of an actual situation. If the level of expectation is higher than the actual experience, the tourist will be dissatisfied. For the traveler to be satisfied with a product, service, or situation, the level of actual experience must be equal to or greater that the level of expectation. Hence, the level of service given to the vacationer must be given great importance in order to assure a quality experience and a high level of satisfaction that will bring the traveler back.
A destination will be included as an alternative of an individual and the perceived alternatives are the criteria used for making a decision among these alternatives. The criteria used are learned. They are the result of past experiences, as well as information received from either the commercial or the social environment.
An individual’s learning input based on past experience is derived from having experienced the same thing that is being considered or having experienced something similar. For example, if a person stayed in a particular destination, the factors that accounted for his satisfaction such as good weather and friendly service will be the criteria by which he determines where to take his next vacation. Thus, decision criteria are developed or modified from actual experiences.

Effect of Consistency and Complexity on leisure Travel
Edward J. Mayo and Lance Jervis in the Psychology of Leisure Travel, believe that individuals differ in the amount of psychological tension they can handle. Too much repetition or consistency results in boredom and a corresponding amount of psychological tension greater than he could handle. To reduce the tension, he will attempt to introduce some complexity in his life. This explains why a tourist, who for many years spent his vacation in particular vacation spot, will either change the destination or the method of reaching it.
Similar, too much complexity many result in more tension than a person can endure. To reduce the level of tension, he will introduce consistency into that experience. For example, a Filipino tourist in Europe may find the different language and culture (complexity) need to be balance by staying in a hotel chain with which he is familiar (consistency)
The traveler who experiences a great deal of consistency in everyday life may compensate by seeking vacations which offer variety. The opposite is also true.

Stanley C. Plog, a biological researcher, classified travelers based on their different personalities as pyschocentrics and allocentrics
Psychocentrics or people centered on self, are inhibited and unadventuresome. They have a strong desire for consistency and the familiar. When traveling, they prefer to visit “safe” destinations. They do not like to experiment with accommodation, food, and entertainment. They look for experiences that will not result in entertainment. They look for experiences that will not result in personal stress or involve unusual situations. The love-energy psychocentric is quite content to stay home. The high-energy psychocentric will take a tour that is completely arranged. At the destination, the psychocentric usually indulge in activities with love activity level such as golf using a golf cart. They prefer to drive to a destination rather than fly.
Allocentric, or people having interest and attention on the person, are highly curious and thrive on stimulation and change. They have a strong need for variety and new experiences. When traveling, they seek destination that offer them an opportunity to experience totally different cultures and environment. They tend to accept challenges, meet the resident, tryout local food and drinks, and stay in native lodgings. They want to explore, discover and go on their one rather than buy package tours. The low-energy allocentric is still curious and adventuresome, but foregoes the more demanding schedule. The high-energy allocentris is the hiker, the biker, the diver , he prefers activities with high activity level.

Classification of traveler base on personality
Classification of Travelers
Business travelers
Majority of travelers in most developed countries such as United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom are the business travelers. They are divided into three categories namely

Regular Business Travelers
surveys show that there are major difference male and female business travelers some of these are
a. Women business travelers are slightly younger
b. They tend to stay longer at their destinations
c. They are more apt to be unmarried than males
d. They are more likely to book through a travel agent
e. They have a greater preference for downtown accommodation facilities closer to work

Business Travelers Attending Meetings, Conventions, congress
regular formalized meeting of associations of body or a meeting sponsored by an association or body on a regular or ad hoc basis
International Conventions – usually involves members and nonmembers from more than two foreign countries, and they take place in difference counties every year.
Continental Conventions – have delegates coming from a continent such as North America, Europe, or Asia.
National Conventions – are meeting organized by associations at the state, provincial, or regional level.

It is travel given by firms to employees as a reward for some accomplishment or to encourage employees to achieve more than what is required. Incentive trips have risen sharply according to the Society of Incentive Travel Executives (SITE) salespeople are given trips for reaching a set of goal in overall sale of a particular item or in the numbers of new accounts.
Incentive Travelers
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