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CH-6 The Progressive Era
Transcript of CH-6 The Progressive Era
Standard Oil used its economic power to sway government decisions.
Progressives wanted the government to create various social welfare
programs to ensure a basic staandard of living for all americans
They believed that change was needed to protect citizens.
Business was too powerful
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
"We do not wish to destroy corporations but we do wish to make them [serve] the public good."
The New Labor Department wanted new laws that would benefit women and children.
The use of Alcohol
Pure Food and Drug Act
National Park Service
No one is protecting the well being of citizens
"Temperance is moderation in the things that are good and total abstinence from the things that are foul."
-Frances E. Willard
With the Government creating more programs, a new system was created to pay for it.
The Federal Reserve
To prevent bank failures
The public demanded consumer protection.
Government regulations and inspections of food
Land is set aside parks for public use.
Tenement Housing Law
What was the result?
Protect Social Welfare
Create Economic Reforms
Promote Moral Improvements
“I want all hellions to quit puffing that hell fume in God's clean air.”
"Once you eliminated the pusher people will stop drinking because temperance was the natural state of humans."
Political Machines call the shots
"He dispenses places, rewards the loyal, punishes the mutinous, concocts schemes, negotiates treaties. He generally avoids publicity and is all the more dangerous because he sits, like a spider, hidden in his web.
He is a Boss."
Foster Efficiency in
Trusts have too much influence
Direct Election of Senators
Most Famous Example:
William "Boss" Tweed
of New York
Primaries allow voters instead of the Machines to decide who the Republican and Democratic candidates will be.
"Give the power back to the people"
Citizens to directly introduce or proposed laws
City Commissions, and City Managers
The political machine triumphs because it is a united minority acting against a divided majority.
"Politics is business. That's what's the matter with it."
- Lincoln Steffens
The state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens
exposes the business practices of Standard Oil.
exposed the conditions of the meat packing industry
Became an active Socialist
Photographed urban poor.
Wrote the book "How the Other Half Lives"
Growth in Public Education
Muckrakers expose the problems of society. Journalists who "raked up"
corruption, industrial or government
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Awarded Government jobs based on Merit.
Set basic rules about what had to be in new tenament houses.
Sowing the Seeds of Reform
The Grange" protested unfair railroad practices,
started own banks & worked to lower income tax & make laws against trusts.
The Grangers turned to Congress for help
Congress passed the Interstate Commerce Act to regulate railroads from charging different rates.
The Populist Party
Farmers' Alliance founded Populist Party
Believed farmers & industrial workers could band together to break big business's power
8 Hour work day & government ownership of railroads
Candidates won some elections.
Election of 1900
Democrats adopted Populist Party ideas
Populists supported Dem. William Jennings Bryan
Rep. nominated William McKinley--support from business & financial interests
Populist Party dissolved
In 1896 William Jennings Bryan gave a speech at the National Democratic Party Convention called the "Cross of Gold" and was nomination against William McKinley (R). Bryan narrowly loss the election
16th Amendment (1913)- Gave congress power to collect a federal income tax.
17th Amendment (1913)- Provided for direct election of senators.
18th Amendment (1919)- Prohibited the manufacture and sale of liquor. (repealed in 1933)
New Constitutional Amendments
Progressivism Under Taft and Wilson
Taft was persuaded to run for President by his good friend, Theodore Roosevelt.
Taft disappointed both conservatives and progressives during his presidency, and became very unpopular.
In the 1912 election, Roosevelt challenged Taft for the Republican nomination.
Taft’s nomination upset progressive Republicans who vowed to form their own party.
Election of 1912
Progressives formed their own party with Roosevelt as their Presidential candidate.
Progressive Party became known as the Bull Moose Party.
Bull Moose Party
During one of his campaign speeches, Roosevelt was shot.
With a bullet lodged in his lung, Roosevelt spoke for another hour and a half before seeking medical attention.
“Friends,” he said, “I shall ask you to be quiet. I don’t know whether you fully understand that I have just been shot; but it takes more that that to kill a Bull Moose.” (as he showed the crowd his bloody shirt)
“It takes more than that to kill a Bull Moose”
Woodrow Wilson was the Democratic Presidential candidate in 1912.
Ran on a reform platform to break up big business and trusts.
Wilson’s New Freedom
Thus, four candidates ran for the 1912 presidency,
William Howard Taft: Republican (incumbent)
Theodore Roosevelt: Bull Moose Party
Woodrow Wilson: Democratic Party
Eugene V. Debs: Socialist Party
Taft and Roosevelt split the conservative and progressive Republicans, giving Wilson the victory
despite only 42% of the popular vote.
Former professor of political science
First major goal was tariff reform.
To make up for lost tariff revenue, passed the 16th Amendment which created a federal income tax.
Wilson believed all trusts and monopolies should be eliminated.
Passed the Clayton Antitrust Act to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890.
Spelled out very specific restrictions that allowed competition in marketplace.
Created the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to enforce the Clayton Act and set up fair-trade laws.
Wilson and Antitrust
In 1913, Congress passed an act that created the Federal Reserve System.
The Federal Reserve System, “the Fed”, became the central bank for the entire country. It would try to stop bank failures.
Federal Reserve System
As WWI began, Americans turned their attention to the war, and calls for reform faded.
One reform movement grew bolder: women’s suffrage.
Suffrage: the right to vote
Although women campaigned for the right to vote for over 70 years, only during the Progressive Era did women finally gain suffrage.
In 1848, women activists met at the Seneca Falls Convention in New York.
First group of women to formerly demand suffrage.
Famous leaders were Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, soon joined by Susan B. Anthony.
Seneca Falls Convention
Quaker from Massachusetts
Early abolitionist, one who advocated the abolition of slavery
school admission for women and former slaves
equal pay and an eight-hour workday for women
helped the woman’s suffrage movement
Spent 40 years appealing to Congress for women’s suffrage.
Never married and died in 1906, fourteen years before women were granted suffrage.
She was arrested and convicted for insisting on voting
Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony, a political organizer, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton, a skilled speaker and writer, formed a dynamic partnership .
Anthony and Stanton
In 1872, Anthony led a group of women to the polls in Rochester, NY, where she insisted on voting.
She was arrested for civil disobedience.
Civil disobedience- nonviolent refusal to obey a law in effort to change it.
Used her arrest as a public platform to call attention to the suffrage issue
Suffragists introduced a new amendment that adopted Susan B. Anthony’s wording, that granted suffrage.
The amendment was denied in 1878
The amendment was reintroduced each year from 1887-1896; it was defeated every year.
U.S. entered WWI in 1917
Woman across the country hastened to volunteer and fill jobs left by men.
The war united the country and arguments of “separate spheres” were dulled or forgotten.
In 1919, Congress formally proposed the suffrage amendment and it was ratified by in August, 1920.
The Nineteenth Amendment marked a huge victory for those who had devoted their life to the cause, and the last major reform of the Progressive Era.
Victory for Suffrage:
citizens approve or reject a law by putting on the ballot
Voters can remove a public officials from office before their term is up.
Roosevelt vigorouslly enforced the Sherman Antitrust Act
A leader in labor reform.
Worked for with Jane Addams at the Hull House in Chicago.
Government asked Kelley to help investigate local labor conditions.
Based on her work, Illinois passed a law prohibiting child labor and regulated sweatshop conditions.
Focused on outlawing child labor and worker protection.
Irish immigrant, lost her husband and four children in a yellow fever epidemic in Tennessee.
Established a dressmaking business, lost it all in the Great Chicago Fire.
Became passionate about labor reform.
Traveled around the country organizing
labor unions, particularly in the mines in West Virginia and Colorado.
Spokesperson for unions, founded the International Workers of the World (IWW).
Mary Harris “Mother” Jones
Many resisted progressives attempt to reform society.
Sought to increase government involvement in housing, the workforce, healthcare, and even entertainment.
Some resisted the idea of increase government control over their lives
Even some poor families, who progressives were trying to help, sometimes resisted ideas like banning child labor, which they depended on to survive.
Resistance to Progressive Reforms
Municipal = City/Local
Municipal reforms aimed at ending corruption within cities.
Attacked political machines like Tammany Hall (Boss Tweed) in favor of educated, professional leadership.
Break up companies that limit competition.