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Performance Enhancing Drugs

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on 5 November 2013

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Transcript of Performance Enhancing Drugs

Current Use
6-10% of high school boys will use steroids vs. 1% girls
25% of young people use for appearance
1 million in US are current or former steroid users
13.3% of body builders reported history of amphetamine use
6.3% of randomly selected High School football players have used steroids with 14 being the average age of 1st use
15% of self reported steroid users started using before age 10
Current and former users 12-34 have a high correlation with illicit drug use, aggressiveness, and property destruction
Performance Enhancing Drugs
History of PEDs
Use of hippouris documented by Plinios, the younger as early as the 1st century BC
1879: doping is defined as "the use of drugs in an attempt to enhance sporting performance
1886: first recorded death from trimethyl
1965: testing of athletes began
1968: IOC produced first list of banned substances
1999: World Anti-Doping Agency created
2004: Olympic Oath modified against drugs
Top 20 Famous Dopers
#1: Lance Armstrong
#2: Alex Rodriguez
#3: Barry Bonds
#4: Mark McGwire
#5: Marion Jones
#6: Roger Clemens
#7: Andy Pettitte
#8: Manny Ramirez
#9: Jose Canseco
#10: Sammy Sosa
Risks & Dangers
Psychological Effects
mood swings
"Roid Rage"
Medical Issues
closing of growth plates
peliosis hepatitis
high blood pressure
heart disease
Drug Testing
ATLAS &ATHENA Prevention Programs
Adolescent Training & Learning to Avoid Steroids (ATLAS)
31 high school football teams (N=3207)
3 cohorts (1994-6)
Classroom & Weight Room Exercises
1 year follow ups maintained difference from control groups
Mechanism of Action
Modulating androgen receptor expression as a consequence of:
Intracellular metabolism
Affecting topology of the androgen receptor
Anticatabolic effect
Non-genomic as well as genomic pathways in the CNS
Second messenger signal transduction occurs within seconds to a few minutes as opposed to 30-60 minutes
various mushrooms, herbs, and other hallucinogens
strychnine: poison with stimulant properties
royal jelly
sheep testicles
hippouris: plant for muscle growth
Ancient PEDs
1998: Tour de France scandal
1999: First World Conference on Doping in Sport led to founding of WADA
2004: The Code & International Standards adopted by all IFs and 73 governments
World Anti-Doping Agency
Synthesized version
Increases height and weight
Private Swiss law Foudation Working "towards a vision of a world where all athletes compete in a doping free sporting environment"
weight trainers
Beta-2 Agonists

Lung capacity and muscle mass

Natural substance
Legal food supplement
1886: French physician injects himself with testicular fluid from dogs & guinea pigs
1896: Paris-to-Bordeaux cycling use of speed balls made of heroine and cocaine
1935: Adolf Butenandt developed anabolic steroids
1936: German olympians using nitroglycerine
WWII: Anabolic steroids used by Nazis and later by concentration camp survivors
PEDs in Modern Record
#11: Jason Giambi
#12: David Ortiz
#13: Arnold Schwarzenegger
#14: Bill Romanowski
#15: Shawne Merriman
#16: Chris Benoit
#17: Lyle Alzado
#18: Gary Sheffield
#19: Jose Canseco
#20: Ben Johnson
Performance Enhancing Drugs
Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
Synthetic substance (testosterone)
Anabolic Effects
Androgenic Effects
Female Hormones
Hormone Receptor Blocking Drugs
Beta-2 Agonists
Other PEDs
Human Growth Hormone
Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise & Nutrition Alternatives
18 high schools, 40 teams (N=928)
Female athletes from variety of sports
Peer-led, small groups
Reduced use of dieting pills, amphetamines & AS
Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids
Other Hormonal Manipulations
Beta-2 Agonists
Types of Performance Enhancing Drugs
Physical Effects in Men
breast development
acne, baldness
shrinking of testicles & sterility
reduced sex drive
headaches, nausea & dizziness
Physical Effects in Women
clitoral enlargement
breast atrophy
menstrual irregularity
male pattern baldness
increases in lean body mass
increase in muscle tissue
enhancement of muscle contractability
increase in bone density
increase in ability to perform high intensity training
less recuperation time
inhibition of corticosteroids
Benefits & Appeal
gym candy
Street Names
About WADA - World Anti-Doping Agency. (n.d.). <i>World Anti-Doping Agency</i>. Retrieved November 4, 2013, from http://www.wada-ama.org/en/About-WADA/

Anabolic Steroid Abuse. (2006). What are anabolic steroids?. Retrieved November 3, 2013, from http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/anabolic-steroid-abuse/what-are-anabolic-steroids

Anabolic Steroids. (2013). NIDA for Teens. Retrieved November 3, 2013, from http://teens.drugabuse.gov/drug-facts/anabolic-steroids

Angoorani, H., Narenjiha, H., Tayyebi, B., Ghassabian, A., Ahmadi, G., & Assari, S. (2012). Amphetamine use and its associated factors in body builders: a study from Tehran, Iran. <i>ARCHIVES OF MEDICAL SCIENCE </i>, <i>8</i>(2), 362-367. Retrieved October 28, 2013, from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3361051/?report=classic

Bigger Stronger Faster: A History of Performance Enhancing Drugs - The Passionate Eye | CBC News Network. (n.d.). CBCnews. Retrieved November 4, 2013, from http://www.cbc.ca/documentaries/passionateeyeshowcase/2010/biggerstrongerfaster/history.html

Clarke, G., Elliot, D., Goldberg, L., Moe, E., Wolf, S., Poole, L., & Perrin, N. (January 01, 2000). THE ATHENA (ATHLETES TARGETING HEALTHY EXERCISE AND NUTRITION ALTERNATIVES) PROGRAM: TARGETING SPORT TEAMS FOR DRUG PREVENTION & HEALTH PROMOTION 920. Medicine &amp Science in Sports &amp Exercise, 28, 154.

How do role models affect our youth?. (n.d.). CODA. Retrieved November 4, 2013, from http://www.drugabuse.ca/how-do-role-models-affect-our-youth

Kicman, A. T. (2008). Pharmacology Of Anabolic Steroids. British Journal of Pharmacology, 154(3), 502-521.

Papagelopoulos, P., Soucacos, P., & Mavrogenis, A. (2004). Doping in Ancient and Modern Olympic Games. Orthopedics, 27(12). Retrieved October 27, 2013, from http://www.healio.com/orthopedics/journals/ortho/%7B938e8e86-5151-451a-bd36-cab0e26d9746%7D/doping-in-ancient-and-modern-olympic-games?fulltext=1

Teens and Steroids – Role Models. (n.d.). Teens and Steroids – Role Models. Retrieved November 4, 2013, from http://www.steroid-abuse.org/role-models-teens.htm

The Best Athletes Who Have Used Performance Enhancing Drugs. (n.d.). Ranker. Retrieved November 4, 2013, from http://www.ranker.com/crowdranked-list/greatest-althletes-who-have-used-performance-enhancing-drugs

Yesalis, C. (2001). Use of Steroids for Self-Enhancement: An Epidemiologic/Societal Perspective. The AIDS Reader, 11(3). Retrieved November 1, 2013, from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/410376_2
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