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Ancient Rome

Luke Raffaelle, Tanner Chavez, Ben Bequette, and Andrew Treat. 4th hour
by

Luke Raffaelle

on 2 October 2014

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Transcript of Ancient Rome

Roman Clothing
Rome
History
Religion
Tradition
Maps
Weather/Climate
Government
- Rome has hot, dry days which are cooled in the evening by the Ponentino which was a west wind that rises from the Tyrrhenian Sea
- Receives roughly 30 inches of precipitation annually
- Temperatures are typically higher than 75 degrees
-Often reaches above 95 degrees in July and August (Hottest Months)
- Despite having rather mild winters, there are occasional frosts
- The tromantana, a wind from the north, visits the city regularly ("Climate")

Mythical founding on April 21, 753 BC
Actual founding in the year 625 BC
Two myths about the founding of Rome
Romulus and Remus
Aeneas
Rome was founded by the Etruscans
Romans overthrew Etruscans in 509 BC
Julius Caesar became a dictator in the year 45 BC
He was killed a year later
His nephew Octavius becomes Rome's first emperor in 27 BC
Rome converts to Christianity in 306
Goth Odoacer kills last Roman Emperor and ends the Roman Empire ("Roman Empire")
Now Rome is the capital of Italy and home to the Roman Catholic Religion (La Putt)
Language
Roman religion was in a mixture of rituals, superstitions, and traditions collected from other cultures
They even took many of their gods from other cultures
Most of the religion was taken from cultures that the Romans conquered, such as the Greeks, Etruscans, and Latin tribes
Eventually, some of the gods were worshipped for reasons no one remebered
Roman Empire at peak expansion
Society
One of the most important parts of society was the census
Roman males were required to declare his family, sife, shildren slaves and riches
Failure to comply would result in loss of all possestions and then being sold into slavery
The Census
Social Structure
Art of Ancient Rome
Based on heredity, property, wealth, citizenship, and freedom
Women were defined by the social status of her father or husband
2 main social classes
Boundaries between social classes was strict and legally enforced
Sculptures
Great deal of sculptures used to embellish architecture
Columns were used as decoration and placed on the side of buildings
Columns, themselves, actually supported no weight
Roman Sculptors were greatly influenced by Greeks
However, The Romans portrayed leaders with more realistic qualities
Meaning, imperfections such as thinning hair and crooked noses would be portrayed in the sculpture ("Roman Art and Architecture")
Paintings
In A.D. 79, the eruption of the volcano Vesuvius ravaged the city of Pompeii and covered it with layers of lava which, later, hardened into rock.
This perfectly preserved many paintings and these paintings tell us the majority of what we know about Roman Paintings today
Paintings were painted on the inside walls of buildings sometimes to incorporate the illusion of depth to make the room seem large ("Roman Art and Architecture")

Patricians
Plebians
Rich descendants of noble families
Live in large houses and owned land
Had political power in the senate
Married and did business only within their class
Artisans or peasants who worked for the patricians
Lived in apartments
Had no political rights
Could become clients of patricians: Exchanged their services for protection from the patron
("History On The Net")
("History On The Net")
Economy
Farming and slave-based, with small scale industrial production
Staple Crops: grains, olives, and grapes
Wine and olive oil were top exports
Because of the lack of industry, many goods were imported
Farmers could donate crops to the government instead of a monetary tax
This allowed the government to support one of the greatest military conquests in history
Had one of the world's most developed coinage system, and it was similar to the US coinage system
Christianity
Romans felt that Christians were dangerous, and persecuted them
Then in AD 312, on the eve of battle, the emperor Constantine had a vision of Christ
Constantine won the battle, and credited his success to the Christian God
He started to build and rebuild churches, and destroyed pagan temples
Constantine also gave the Christian Clergy tax exemptions and punished the pagans
In AD 380, Emperor Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of Rome
Christianity has been a large part of Roman life ever since
90% of Italy is now Christian, and 87% are Roman Catholic
Climate of Modern Rome
• Hottest Months are July and August where it reaches temperatures of 95 degrees
• Very Mild Climate
• Winter lasts from December to February and the average temperature is around 55 degrees
• Mildest time of year is Springtime which lasts for around 3 months (March- May)
• Autumn season also considered very pleasant (September and October) ("Rome Climate and Weather")

The Golden Mean and Carpe Diem by Horace
Horace was one of the gratest Roman poets, and is more known for his style of writing than for what he wrote
He was the son of a freed slave, but was well educated and determined to make a name for himself
His works were popular with the rich literary patrons that surrounded Augustus
Both are
odes
: complex, generally lengthy lyric poem on a serious subject
Both are very personal and reflective
Can be put into
maxims:
"Nothing to Excess" and "Sieze the Day"
Non-religious
Written for the sophisticated
("Religion")
("Religion")
("Roman Society")
Rome originally ruled by Etruscan Kings
Romans overthrew monarchy in year 509 BC and began the roman republic
Republic had 3 branches
2 consuls headed executive
Senate and Assemble headed legislative
Judges headed Judicial
Julius Caesar becomes dictator in 45 BC
Julius Caesar assassinated in 44 BC
Octavius becomes Emperor, starting the Roman Empire which will last until the Fall of Rome
Goths kill Romulus Augustus, ending Roman Empire and stating the Dark Ages in Europe ("Roman Empire")
Pasta is a major part of Rome because it is healthy, easy to prepare, and easy on the stomach
Pizza is one of the modern food inventions that Rome is home to
Some of the common roman foods include crostata, trippa, carcio fi alla giuda, amongst others


Modern Roman Food

Roman clothing was designed to tell of the social status of the wearer
Roman Clothing signified rank, status, office and authority
Two types of clothing
1. Indutus which were the undergarments
2. Amictus which were the outer garments
The toga was at first worn by women as well as men
Later Roman matrons wore a different robe, called a stola, with a broad border or fringe, reaching to the feet
Prostitutes and women condemned for adultery were not permitted to wear the stola and therefore called togatae
The toga was a loose woolen robe, of a semicircular form, without sleeves, open from the waist upwards, but closed from there downwards, and surrounding the limbs as far as the middle of the leg
Its color was normally white, except in case of mourning, when a black or dark color was worn

Italian breakfast is typically small
Napkins are placed on the lap and forearms (not elbows) are to be on the table, not the lap
In the ancient Roman empire at one point, there were about 182 celebrated holidays
In the smaller towns you can find the most colorful carnivals
Tufara in Molis where a figure called “Carnevale” a huge straw puppet which represents the sins of the people
Nocera Tirinese in Calavria where they still practice medieval rituals
Cocullo in Abruzzo where they celebrate with snakes around the statue of St Dominic
Siena where they celebrate the “Palio”, on the 2nd of July and the 16th of August where bareback jockeys race around the main square of Siena in races with a “no holds barred”
Easter with the famous marching of the cross from the Roman Colosseum to the Palatine on Good Friday
The native language of Rome was Latin
Alphabet was based on Etruscan alphabet which was based on the Greek alphabet
Greek became the language spoken by the well-educated elites
Most of the literature studied in Rome was written in Greek
Romans wrote in uppercase letters with proportioned strait lines, curves, and angles until later in their history
There was no “J” and “U” was barely used and if used, it was followed by “V”
Over time the uneducated public transformed the language into what is now known as Italian

Roman Food
Over time ancient roman food changed as it became influenced by the Greek culture
As Rome expanded its rule they were exposed to various kinds of food and cooking
Before Rome expanded there was not a large variation in the food the poor and rich ate
The difference in diet was that rich people were able to eat meat and the more exotic the food was the better it was
It wasn’t just because of the taste of the food, but the knowing of the fact that it was exotic
Wine was absolutely essential in a Roman meal
Ordinary citizens made do with what they called the Mediterranean Triad which was made up of different kinds of vegetables and fruits they grew for themselves
First meal at early dawn (breakfast)
Usually made up of bread
Rich ate eggs, cheese, honey, milk, and fruit with bread
Three meals a day (Ientaculum, originally Cena but was moved to a later part in the day, Prandium was later added in the middle of the day after Cena became later,
Military
Rome was a superpower in terms of strength and size
They fought in many wars, many of which were just to establish dominance over other cultures
One of these wars were the Punic Wars
Rome won most of their battles due to numbers and strategy
Sometimes fought in a formation known as the Testudo ("Roman Empire")
The Golden Mean
Carpe Diem
How to live your life in moderation and still be happy
It is never good to be too rich or too poor
One should live in harmony
Be cautious with good fortune, and don't take it for granted
Builds off of the idea of living in moderation, adding that one should also live each day to the fullest of their ability while simultaneously living in moderation.
"Seize the day," or "Enjoy life fully while you can."
("Roman Food")
("Modern Roman Food”)
("Roman Clothing")
("Italian Culture Traditions and Customs. Surviving Roman Daily Life and Italian Culture in Italy")
(“Ancient Rome - Crystalinks.”)
("Ancient Roman Economy")
("The Golden Mean")
("Carpe Diem")
("Horace")
(Vasperna)
Full transcript