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Chapter 7 - Learning

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April M

on 4 March 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 7 - Learning

experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner Learning Development Classical Conditioning When a neutral stimulus produces a response after being paired with a stimulus that naturally produces a response Unconditioned Stimulus (US) Something that reliably produces a naturally occurring reaction in an organism Unconditioned Response (UR) A reflexive reaction that is reliably produced by an unconditioned stimulus causes Before Conditioning causes During Conditioning Then Conditioned Stimulus (CS) A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism does not cause (initially) + now causes After Conditioning Conditioned Response (CR) A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus and so has become a Conditioned Stimulus (CS) A stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism Then Principles Acquisition the phase of classical conditioning when the CS and the US are presented together Second-Order Conditioning Conditioning where the US is a stimulus that acquired its ability to produce learning from an earlier procedure in which it was used as a CS Extinction The gradual elimination of a learned response that occurs when the US is no longer presented Generalization A process in which the CR is observed even though the CS slightly different from the original one used during acquisition + now causes has become a US so can be paired with a new CS + causes US CS UCR causes CS CR after conditioning example of + Initially + Eventually no longer presented no longer presented salivation response is extinct after a rest, may result in Spontaneous Recovery The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period After Extinction once again causes after a rest produces tone similar to may generalize so that Discrimination The capacity to distinguish between similar but distinct stimuli Learns = thus = thus example of Biological Preparedness A propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over time rely primarily on smell/taste rely primarily on vision smell of poison coloring indicating poison learn aversion faster learn aversion faster learn aversion more slowly Development Operant Conditioning A type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future Law of Effect The principle that behaviors that are followed by a "satisfying state of affairs" tend to be repeated and those that produce an "unpleasant state of affairs" are less likely to be repeated Schedules of Reinforcement At first, trial and error take the cat a long time to escape, but after learning how to get out (the behavior), the cat is quicker and quicker to escape (freedom being the "satisfying state of affairs") Operant Behavior Behavior that an organism produces that has some impact on the environment pushing the lever
and subsequently... Reinforcer Any stimulus or event that functions to increase the likelihood of the behavior that led to it receiving food is a Punisher Any stimulus or event that functions to decrease the likelihood of the behavior that led to it receiving a shock is a decreases increases Positive (+)
Adds Negative (-)
Subtracts stimulus is removed stimulus is presented Reinforcement ( )
Increases Behavior Punishment ( )
Decreases Behavior Positive Reinforcement Example:
Given candy (+) for telling the truth ( ) Positive Punishment Example:
Given vegetables (+)
for lying ( ) Negative Reinforcement Example:
Vegetables are taken away (-) for telling the truth ( ) Negative Punishment Example:
Candy is taken away (-)
for lying ( ) Four strategies for getting a child who likes candy but dislikes vegetables to be honest Overjustification effect Circumstances when external rewards can undermine the intrinsic satisfaction of performing a behavior Gertrude used to like playing the piano just for fun, then her mother started giving her gumdrops to encourage her to play more. Now, Gertrude doesn't enjoy playing the piano unless she gets a gumdrop Fixed Interval Reinforcers are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made

Example: Students receive heavily weighted grade for exams. So, studying activity increases every four weeks when the exam is near, then decreases to no studying again until the next exam. Variable Interval A behavior is reinforced based on an average time that has expired since the last reinforcement

Example: A radio station gives away concert tickets once a day, but not at the same time each day. People must listen to the radio throughout the day in order to call in at the appropriate time to win. Fixed Ratio Reinforcement is delivered after a specific number of responses have been made.

Example: Someone pays you $100 for every 100 plastic bottles you recycle. Variable Ratio The delivery of reinforcement is based on a particular average number of responses.

Example: Slot machines might hit the jackpot an average of every 100 pulls someone might win after 3 pulls, another might take over 100, thus people must keep paying and pulling the lever if they hope to win Reinforcer = Green
Behavior = Blue
Schedule = Red Intermittent Reinforcement An operant conditioning principle in which only some of the responses made are followed by reinforcement

Very resistant to extinction because it is difficult to detect if a behavior is actually being extinguished or still reinforced Anne is really tempted to break up with her boyfriend because he is huge jerk to her most of the time, but every once in awhile he does something really sweet and romantic and she decides to stay with him because she thinks things might be different now. Intermittent Reinforcement effect Shaping Learning that results from the reinforcement of successive steps to a final desired behavior The cat's litter box is moved closer and closer to the toilet, eventually being placed on it. Then, the litter box is made smaller and smaller, until the cat is using only the toilet. Voila! No more emptying litter boxes. Now, to shape flushing... Latent Learning A condition in which something is learned but it is not manifested as a behavioral change until sometime in the future If you accidentally locked yourself out of your house, you don't try one door and then give up on trying to get in. Instead you might try the back door or a garage door or a window. You have learned that these are alternative entrances to your house even though you don't normally use those entrances to get in. Cognitive Maps A mental representation of the physical features of the environment. If you think of a place you know well, like your home. You can probably imagine how you would get from one room to another without having to actually be in your home. That's because you have formed a mental map of the layout of your house. form of Observational Learning A condition in which learning takes place by watching the actions of others Diffusion chain A process in which individuals initially learn a behavior by observing another individual perform that behavior and then serve as a model from which other individuals learn Tool use (in this case, smashing nuts with rocks) is learned by young chimpanzees observing parent behavior. When the young chimp has offspring, it will demonstrate the technique to them. Interestingly, chimpanzees always use the hand that they observed. So, if a parent used the left hand to hold the rock, so will the child, and this child will, in turn, eventually pass on left-handed tool use to its offspring. Where do these behaviors come from? Implicit Learning Learning that takes place largely without awareness of the process or the products of information acquisition Habituation A general process in which repeated or prolonged exposure to a stimulus results in a gradual reduction in response The baby which was initially very interested in the duck, has become habituated to it after being exposed to it repeatedly, and no longer finds it amusing. In other words, the child has implicitly learned everything interesting about the duck. opposite of pushing the lever and... is based on https://docs.google.com/document/pub?id=186ZEM2kj0gNz4oXyx5GIQd_bzrFB33ezp6WBwg_f51Q
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