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Copy of Elements of Literature
Transcript of Copy of Elements of Literature
can move chronologically (through TIME), spatially (through
SPACE), and emphatically (degrees of emphasis) 1. exposition The introductory material which gives the setting, creates the tone, presents the characters, and presents other facts necessary to understanding the story 2. Rising Action 3.Climax FORESHADOWING An author's use of hints or clues to suggest events that will occur later in the story. CONFLICT The climax is the result of the crisis. It is the high point of the story for the reader. Frequently, it is the moment of the highest interest and greatest emotion. The point at which the outcome of the conflict can be predicted. 5. Resolution
(denoument) Rounds out and concludes the action.
(Ties it up with a bow) 1. time
3. environment context of the action of story, frames the characters according to: The subjects influencing or being influenced by events and setting; all characters possess MOTIVATION that explains their thoughts, feelings, actions and speech. Note: to create irony, writers reverse traditional expectations of a setting: laughing at a funeral, murder at a pastoral scene Types: A series of events that builds from the conflict. It begins with the inciting force and ends with the climax. Confrontation(s) with either INTERNAL (person vs. self) or EXTERNAL forces: Minor Characters: deals with the narrator (who is telling the story) and the perceptions he or she brings. The NARRATIVE VOICE filters the action, setting, and characters of the story. Types: Hemingway, a former journalist was famous for his 1st person narrative novels CommonType: A person, place or object which has a meaning in itself but suggests other meanings as well. Things, characters and actions can be symbols. Anything that suggests a meaning beyond the obvious. Conventional: generally meaning the same thing to all readers.
EX: bright sunshine symbolizes goodness
water is a symbolic cleanser This film has been called a metaphor for both apartheid in S. Africa and U.S. anti-Mexican sentiment Kirk, Spock, & McCoy = symbols for Logic, Reason, and Emotion The climate of FEELING in a literary work.
The choice of setting, objects, details, images, and words
all contribute towards creating a specific MOOD. Parallel Episodes Repeated elements of the plot (meaning: a recurring event) Subplot A plot in the story that is secondary to the main plot (cc) image by rocketboom on Flickr 4. Falling Action The events after the climax which close the story. (Wraps it up) Characterization *How an author reveals the personality of a character. 1. Physical description 2. What the character does 3. What the character says 4. What other characters say about the character 5. What the character thinks and feels 7. How he/she relates to other characters 8. Background information about the character "Instantly, obediently, Jonas had dropped his bike on its side on the path behind his family's dwelling. He had run indoors and stayed there, alone." Lowry (2). "...Asher had dashed into the classroom, late as usual, arriving breathlessly in the middle of the chanting of the morning anthem." Lowry (3). "It was the first thing Jonas noticed as he looked at the newchild peering up curiously from the basket. The pale eyes." Lowry (20). "I feel a little sorry for him,"Jonas said, "even though I don't even know him. I feel sorry for anyone who is in a place where he feels strange and stupid." Lowry (6). "Apprehensive, Jonas decided. That's what I am." Lowry (4). ""You go Lily," he said, seeing his sister, who was much younger - only a Seven - wiggling with impatience in her chair." Lowry (5). "Though Jonas had only become a Five the year that they acquired Lily and learned her name, he remembered the excitement, the conversations at home, wondering about her: how she would look, who she would be, how she would fit into their established family unit." Lowry (13). The narrator is a character in the story who can reveal only personal thoughts and feelings and what he or she sees and is told by other characters. (He/she can't tell us thoughts of other characters.) Speaks directly to the reader: rare. Third person: Omniscient: all knowing--reports/evaluates thoughts/feelings of many characters Limited Omniscient: The narrator is an outsider who sees into the mind of one of the other characters. Objective: The narrator is an outsider who can report only what he or she sees and hears. This narrator can tell us what is happening, but he can't tell us the thoughts of other characters. Second person (you, your): First person (I, we, etc.): * Man vs Nature A run in with the forces of nature.
On the one hand, it expresses the insignificance of a single human life in the cosmic scheme of things. On the other hand, it test the limits of a person's strength and will to live. * Man vs Man Conflict that pits one person against another. * Man vs Society The values and customs by which
everyone else lives are being challenged. The character may, on the come to an untimely end as a result of his or her own convictions. The character may, on the other hand, bring others around to a sympathetic point of view, or it may be decided that society was right after all. Man vs Self Internal conflict. The character is battling within him/herself.
Not all conflict involves other people. Sometimes people are their own worst enemies. An internal conflict is a good test of a character's values. Does he give in to temptation or rise above it? Does he demand the most from himself or settle for something less? Does he even bother to struggle? The internal conflicts of a character and how they are resolved are good clues to the character's inner strength.
Often more than one kind of conflict is taking place at the same time. In every case, however, the existence of conflict enhances the reader's understanding of a character and creates the suspense and interest that make you want to continue reading. * Builds suspense by raising questions that encourage the reader to continue reading.
* Makes a narrative more believable by partially preparing the reader for events which are to follow. Irony The contrast between what is expected or what appears and what actually is. Verbal Irony: The contrast between what is said and what is actually meant. Situational Irony: A happening that is the opposite of what is expected or intended. Dramatic Irony: When the audience or reader knows more than the characters know. Tone The author's attitude, stated or implied, toward a subject. An author's tone can be revealed through choice of words and details. Mood The FEELING in a literary work. Theme The main idea or underlying meaning of a literary work.
A theme may be stated or implied. Four ways in which an author can express themes are as follows: 1. By the way the author makes us feel. By sharing feelings of the main character you also share the ideas that go through his/her mind.
2. Themes are presented in thoughts and conversations. Authors put words in their character's mouths only for good reasons. One of these is to develop a story's themes. The things a person says are much on their mind. Look for thoughts that are repeated throughout the story.
3. Themes are suggested through the characters. The main character usually illustrates the most important theme of the story. A good way to get at this theme is to ask yourself the question, What does the main character learn in the course of the story?
4. The actions or events in the story are used to suggest theme. People naturally express ideas and feelings through their actions. One thing authors think about is what an action will "say". In other words, how will the action express an idea or theme. Figurative Language: Whenever you describe something by comparing it to something else, you are using figurative language. Any language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words in order to furnish new effects or fresh insights into an idea or a subject. Imagery: Language that appeals to the senses.
Descriptions of people or objects stated
in terms of our senses. Simile: A figure of speech that involves a direct comparison between two unlike things; uses the words "like" or "as". Metaphor: Involves an implied comparison between two unlike things . The comparison is not announced by "like" or "as".
EX: The road was a ribbon of moonlight. Setting Characters Plot Diagram Hyperbole: An exaggerated statement used to heighten effect. It is not used to mislead the reader, but to emphasize a point.
Ex: She's said so on several million occasions. Allusion: A reference in literary work to a person, place or thing in history or another work of Literature. Often direct or brief references to well-known characters or events. Analogy: A comparison of two things, stressing their similarities. Connotation: An association that comes along with a particular word. The ideas or qualities that are implied by the word.
Ex: Family, Home Denotation: The exact dictionary meaning of a word. LITERARY ELEMENTS Almost always flat or two-dimensional characters. They have only one or two striking qualities. Their predominant quality is not balanced by an opposite quality. They are usually all good or all bad. Such characters can be interesting and/or amusing in their own right, but they lack depth. Flat characters are sometimes referred to as STATIC characters because they do NOT CHANGE in the course of the story. Major Characters: Almost always ROUND or three-dimensional characters. They have good and bad qualities. Their goals, ambitions and values change. A round character CHANGES as a result of what happens to him or her. A character who changes inside as a result of what happens to him/her is referred to in literature as a DYNAMIC character. A dynamic character GROWS or progresses to a higher level of understanding in the course of the story. 6. Motivation What does the Character want?
His/Her wishes, desires, dreams, and needs Not all foreshadowing is obvious. Frequently, future events are merely hinted at through dialogue, description, or the attitudes and reactions of the characters.
Foreshadowing frequently serves two purposes. Theme differs from the subject or topic of a literary work in that it involves a statement or opinion about the topic. Not every literary work has a theme. Themes may be major or minor. A major theme is an idea the author returns to time and again. It becomes one of the most important ideas in the story. Minor themes are ideas that may appear from time to time. All fiction is based on CONFLICT and this conflict is presented in a structured format called PLOT. Alliteration: Using two or more words with the same beginning sound is an alliteration.
Words that are close to one another that have the same beginning sound.
Ex: She sells sea shells by the sea shore