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Amish Adolescence viewed through the PEO model
Transcript of Amish Adolescence viewed through the PEO model
By: Krysta Gardner, Alex Miceli,
Karen Vizaniaris, & Tara Hemphill
Growing up Amish
in Amish life for a person
who accepts Amish ways
I didn’t know who I was
, I didn’t know what I wanted to be in life except my only options were being Amish and wearing these type of clothes all my life.. and now that has changed” (Cantor & Walker, 2002)
“It’s in the back of my mind almost every day that if I don’t change my ways that I might not get into heaven but I cope with it I guess" (Cantor & Walker, 2002)
Values/beliefs are the same- they still believe in teachings of Amish church, but aren't following it
Eventually they must choose to follow Christ and return to the Amish church or they choose to live in the English society
Torn between wanting to be like their parents & the freedom of English society
Exposed to "English" world/culture
Social culture (ex: party lifestyle)
Typically still live with parents, some live with other Amish who are also in Rumspringa
"Bed Courtship"= at the end of date, an Amish boy is allowed to share the Amish girl's bed for the night
Some may experience lack of communication with their families, but there is still sense of community, and the family will be there to take them back
Pressure from family members to join church
Pressure from peers to drink and party
Work full-time since age 13 (when forced to drop out of school; gives them money to buy cars, drugs, alcohol)
Ex: factory work, working at restaurant
Dating, shopping, movies, bowling
Wear "English clothes" & makeup
Enjoy driving a car
Parties- excessive drinking, smoking, music, dancing, typically wild with lots of people (resembles college)
Relevance to OT
Impact on Occupational Profile
As an OT understanding and evaluating an Amish client, it would be crucial to know the culture and physical/social environment that they live in. Their occupations will be affected by their physical and social environment. Ex. Driving horses instead of cars; safety awareness of lighting lamps instead of electric lights.
Impact on Interventions
When designing interventions, an OT must consider the relevance of activities to the person. During rumspringa, Amish girls may wear traditional dress, but they often use technology such as smart phones. Assuming that activities using technology would not be relevant based on what the client is wearing would be a mistake. For client-centered practice, the OT must find out what is meaningful to the client instead of making assumptions based on appearance.
Typical Adolescent Development of an Amish Person
ADL's- bathing, toileting, dressing, eating, functional mobility, personal hygiene, sexual activity
IADL's - care of siblings, health management, meal preparation
Work -waitress, dishwasher, store clerk, baking, childcare, factories
Play/ leisure- sports, reading, religious studies
Baptism after rumspringa
Family gatherings/ dinners
Member of the family- older brother or sister
Routines & Habits
Going to church
Going to work
Working on the farm (males)
Cooking/ Cleaning (females)
Studying Bible and religion
Family gathering/ Community gatherings
American Occupational Therapy Association. (2014). Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain and process (3rd ed.).
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 68(Suppl. 1).
Cantor, S. (Producer), & Walker, L. (Director). (2002).
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Cronin, A., & Mandich, M. (2005).
Human development and performance throughout the lifespan.
Clifton Park, NY: Delmar, Cengage Learning.
Law, M., Cooper, B., Strong, S., Stewart, D., Rigby, P., & Letts, L. (1997). Theoretical contexts for the practice of occupational therapy. In Christiansen, C., and& Baum, C. (Eds.)
Occupational therapy: Enabling function and well-being.
(72 - 103). Thorofare, NJ: SLACK.
Law, M., Cooper, B., Strong, S., Stewart, D., Rigby, P., & Letts, L. (1996). The person-environment-occupation model: A transactive approach to occupational performance.
Canadian Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63.
National Geographic Society. (2014).
Amish out of order facts: What you probably don't know about the Amish.
Retrieved from http://channel.nationalgeographic.com/channel/amish-out-of-order/articles/amish-out-of-order-facts/
Santrock, J.W. (1998).
Boston, MA: McGraw.
Person changes and develops over time.
Interests, motivation, culture, beliefs- spiritual and moral
Emotional responses and situations: failure, stress, distraction
Degree of autonomy
Household, neighborhood, community
tasks & activities" (Law, Cooper, Strong, Stewart, Rigby, & Letts, 1996, p. 16)
Activities a person
engages in over a lifetime
Self care, productivity
Self-maintenance, expression, and life satisfaction
The PEO model allows for these three major aspects to interact together across time. When they are compatible it allows for better occupational performance.
Adult height (growth spurt)
Sexual maturity/ puberty
Forming and developing individuality and identity
Rumspringa at age 16
“When you grow up Amish you are taught God is the most important thing in your life, right after God come your parents you are suppose to obey them and everything they say” (Cantor & Walker, 2002)
Keep apart from the world
Horse and buggy keep life simple, more time to think about God
Eschew jewelry and nice clothes as vanity
Many siblings in one family (12 is usual)
Pennsylvania Dutch language
Life should be witness to Christ
Education leads to pride; therefore, children finish school in 8th grade and begin working
cooking, animal husbandry,
foraging & smithing
driving horse buggies
cooking & cleaning
Caring for others (siblings)
Education (school until 13),
90% attend private Amish schools
Leisure: volleyball, swimming,
ice skating, picnics, hiking,
-Slower pace of living
-Many Bibles in 1 room (15)
-Lots of windows in homes
to increase natural light &
keep house warm
-Living room typically
built in the West for the
most sunlight exposure
-Lack of technology
"All you know is the Amish way of life, but the day you turn 16 your whole life changes" (Cantor & Walker, 2002)
Teens are released from their Amish restrictions and can explore the “English world”.
The Amish teenagers use this time to decide whether they want to join the Amish church or leave and join the English society.
They receive pressure from family members to join the church.
The Amish culture believes that an individual has not been saved until they have been baptized. So if any children die during rumspringa, they fear that they will not get into heaven.
“ For most kids Rumspringa means going out and getting wasted. Then you have a hangover and go back and join the church. It’s like a vaccination. You get a little dose of the outside world, just enough so that you don’t get tempted later on. You’ll be a happier Amish person because you had a choice…” (Cantor & Walker, 2002)
Activities during Rumpspringa include :
Attending wild parities and experimenting with alcohol and drugs
Getting a Haircut
Shopping in malls
Being Sexual Active
Going to the movies
Dating outside the Amish culture
Getting a car
Joining social media: Facebook, Instagram, Twitter
Getting a drivers licenses/Buying a car
Buying iPhones, computers, and other electrical devices
With access to phones and the Internet, the Amish teens can easily get in touch with each other when they are organizing parties. It is not abnormal for their parties to have 700-1,500 people in attendance. Sometimes, people will come from across the country to unite with fellow Amish teens participating in rumspringa.
Rumspringa can last a few weeks or a few years.
suffers from incongruent P-E-O
Occupational performance is the overlap of the person, environment and occupation. As Amish teenagers participate in rumspringa their social, physical, and cultural environment changes. They experience new occupations and activities that are normally discouraged in their Amish communities. During rumspringa Amish teenagers may experience a non-optimal fit that decreases occupational performance.
The PEO model changes over time and it shows ongoing development throughout a lifetime. It is a great model to highlight the changes that Amish teenagers face as they participate in rumspinga.
-General description of PEO Model
-Typical Adolescent Development of an Amish Person
-PEO of Amish adolescent: pre-rumspringa
-PEO of Amish adolescent during Rumspinga
-Relevance to Occupational Therapy
-Questions and Comments
Overview of presentation