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Transcript of Communicative Competence
We can focus on the object of learning as a set of a priori rules and structures, or as "evolving a bond between the individual and others-becoming a member of a community."
We communicate so much information nonverbally in conversations that often the verbal aspect is negligible.It is no
you say, but is
you say it.
Discourse is language beyond the sentence.
In so many of our everyday exchanges, a single sentence sometimes contains certain presuppositions or entailments that are not overtly manifested in surrounding sentence-level surface structure, but that are clear from the total context.
A second language learner of English might utter such a sentence with perfect pronunciation and grammar.
Monday, April 28, 2014
DEFINING COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE
In comprehension and production may be loosely thought of as affect of
on strings of linguistic events.
James Cummins proposed a distinction between cognitive/academic language proficiency (CALP) and basic interpersonal communicative skills (BICS).
It is what learners often use in classroom exercises and tests that focus on form. BICS, on the other hand, is the communicative capacity that all children acquire in order to be able to function in daily interpersonal exchanges.
Both Zuengler and Cole assert that the concept of language socialization in second language acquisition is paramount importance in researching language acquisition, and that it "stands to contribute the most to an understanding of the cognitive, cultural, social, and political complexity of language learning.
It is a construct that had been a topic of interest for at least four decades, recent trends have put less emphasis on structural and cognitive characteristics of communications and more on the myriad social, cultural, and pragmatic implications of what it means to communicate in a second language.
Savignon noted that "communicative competence is relative, not absolute, and depends on the cooperation of all the participants involved."
Functional aspects of communication
Four different components made up the construct of CC.
It is about knowledge of lexical items and of rules of morphology, syntax, sentence grammar, semantics and phonology.
It is the ability we have to connect sentences in stretches of discourse and to form a meaningful whole out of a series of utterances, is concerned with inter sentential relationships.
Is the knowlegde of the sociocultural rules of language and of discourse, requires and understanding of the social context in which language is used.
It is the ability underlying to make repairs, to cope with imperfect knowledge, and to sustain communication. Is the way we manipulate language in order to meet communicative goals.
Second language learners need to understand the purpose of communication, developing an awareness of what the purpose of a communicative act is and how to achieve that purpose trough linguistic forms.
Halliday's seven functions of language:
Serves to manipulate the environment to cause certain events happen.
For example: "On your mark, get set, go! " have an specific condition.
Is the control of events.The regulations of encounters among people, approval, disapproval,behavior control, setting laws, all regulatory features of language.
Is the use of language to make statements convency facts and knowledge, explain, or report: For example: "The sun is hot".
Serves to ensure social maintenance, it requires Knowledge of jokes, folklore, cultural mores, politeness and others keys to social exchange.
Allows a speaker to express feelings, emotions, personality.
Involves languages used to acquire knowledge, to learn about the environment. For example: "Why?".
The Imaginative Function
Serves to create imaginary systems or ideas. Tellings fairy tales, joking, poetry or writing a novel are all uses of the imaginative function.
Notional-functional syllabuses attended to functions as organizing elements of a foreign language curriculum. Grammar, which was the primary elements in the historically preceding structural syllabus, was relegated to a secondary focus. "notions" referred both to abstract concepts such as existence, space, time, quantity, and quality and to what we also call "concepts" or "situations" such as travel, health, education, shopping, and free time.
The following functions are covered in the first several lessons:
Introducing self and other people.
Exchanging personal information.
Asking how to spell someone's name.
Apologizing and thanking.
Identifying and describing people.
Asking for information.
Conversations are excellent examples of the social and interactive nature of communication. Very early on life, children learn the first and essential rule of conversation: attention getting.
-Topic development: using conversation of turning-taking.
It is an approach to linguistic research that relies on computer analyses of language. The corpus is "a collection of texts that is stored in electronic form and analyzed with the help of computer software programs.
"Starts from the assumption that language occurs not in isolated syntactic structures but rather in naturally occurring discourses, whether spoken or written, although admittedly Congestive Rhetoric has focused almost exclusively on written varieties.”
Pragmatics explains how language users are able to overcome apparent ambiguity, since meaning relies on the manner, place, time etc. of an utterance.
Sociopragmatics and Pragmalinguistics
Interface between pragmatics and social organization.
The intersection of pragmatics and linguistics forms.
The organizational rules of a second language, are fundamental to learning the pragmalinguistics features of a language (Bardovi-Harlig, 1999).
Language and Gender
Is the effect of one sex on both production and reception of languge.
Is the way we use laguage in different styles depending on the context of a communicative act in terms of subject matter, shared experience and purpose of communication.
When you converse informally with a friend, you use style tat is different from what you usea in a interview for a job.
Martín Joos (1967) described five levels of formality, in speech styles:
Is used in public speaking before a large audience, is carefully planned in advance.
Is used in audiences that permit effective interchange between speaker and hearers.
Is typically a dialog, doctor-patient conversation e.t.c.
Conversations between friends or colleagues, or members of a family.
Complete absence of social inhibitions.Talk with family, loved ones, and very close friends, where the inner self is revealed.
Body language o Kinesics in unique but clearly interpretable ways. When you fold your arms, cross you legs, stand, walk, move you eyes, and so on.
The gestures of the eyes are in some instances keys to communication, eyes can signal interest, boredom, empathy, hostility, attraction.
Physical proximity, distances for conversation, different cultures interpret different mesages.
Such as clothing and ornamentation are also important aspects of communication.Clothes often signal a person's sense of self esteem, socioeconomics class, and general character.
Touching, how we touch others and where we touch them in some cultures signals a very personal or intimate style.
Our noses also receive sensory nonverbal messages, is important for the animal kingdom, but for the human race too, the smell of human.