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Citywide Slum Upgrading

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Matthew Anthony

on 22 February 2013

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Transcript of Citywide Slum Upgrading

Action Guide Citywide Slum Upgrading Chapter 1: Understanding slums 1.1. Slums: facts and figures
1.2. What are slums?
1.3. What approaches have been taken to address the challenge of slums?
1.4. What is slum upgrading?
1.5. What is citywide slum upgrading (CWSU)?
1.6. Structure and content of the Guide Chapter 2: Understanding the city slum situation and initiating a programme
2.1 Who will coordinate and lead the Programme?
2.2. Getting support and building consensus
2.3 Who will take part?
2.4 What is the situation: Mapping the city’s slums
2.5 What can be done: agreeing on a plan for the programme
2.6 Getting the programme publicly known
2.7. Key issues for successful programmes Chapter 3: Setting up
the Programme 3.1. Feasibility studies
3.2. Identifying parameters for intervention
3.3. Design and establishment of the programme management unit
3.4 Programme coordination
3.5 Programme Objectives
3.6 Setting (Project) eligibility and selection criteria
3.7 Institutional framework
3.8 Financial strategy
3.9. Capacity development
3.10. Communications Chapter 5: Post-implementation management and monitoring and evaluation
5.1 Post-implementation management for sustainability
5.2. Programme monitoring and evaluation (M&E) Chapter 1:
Introduction to slums Chapter 2:
Understanding the slum situation Chapter 3:
Setting up the programme Chapter 4:
Designing and implementing the projects Chapter 5:
Post-implementation management and M&E Chapter 6:
Do's and Don'ts Chapter 7:
Case studies Chapter 8:
Annotated bibliography Chapter 4: Designing and implementing the projects
4.1. Establishing the Project Manager & the Project Management Team
4.2. Adapt the Programme strategy to the project sites
4.3 Settlement Profiling
4.4 Planning and Design
4.5. Implementation and community participation
4.6. Opening and closing projects: Activation
Phase 2 - Strengthen CW action planning through citywide mapping, building consensus and policy reform for 'twin-track' approach
Phase 3 methodology tools - feasibility studies, planning and design, community participation, project opening and closing (activation), M&E and post-implementation management/maintanence
Overall, contributes to Phase 4 - scaling up requires programmatic approach
Technical support to Country Teams
Detailed case studies of 'good practice'
Annotated bibliography with current references
Tools and steps: Logical Model, 'activating projects What is CWSU? 8.1. Bibliography
8.2. Videos
8.3. Useful Websites
8.4. Selected UN-
HABITAT resources 6.1. The dos and don’ts of citywide slum upgrading Background info:
Country & city,
Dates of operation,
Focus Favela Bairro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
PRIMED (Programme for the Integrated Improvement of Sub-Normal Neighbourhoods in Medellin), Colombia
Kampung Improvement Programme, Indonesia
Baan Mankong, Thailand
Slum Networking, Ahmedabad, India
Cities Without Slums, Morocco
Community Infrastructure Project and Upgrading Programme, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania
Participatory Slum Upgrading Project, Ismailia Annex 1: Using the Logical Model to plan and monitor Programmes Annex Financing
Management and Coordination
Planning Process
Community Participation
Capacity Building and Technical Assistance
Operations & Maintenance and Sustainability
Scaling Up Each follows standard template: References and links 8 in-depth case studies
Promote slum upgrading programmes at the city level
Focus on the institutional structures, processes and RBM frameworks for SU
Provide an overview of policy and programme alternatives
Integrate the need for phased, incremental approach
Promotes an urban planning approach to SU
Can be used in pieces - i.e. sub-tasks (e.g. feasibility studies) can be used without needing to do set up a comprehensive programme
Highlights the need to build consensus, communicate, etc.
Recognize SU is an ongoing process and the Guide will need to be adapted in future Boxes, tips and examples throughout
Ignore the relationship to national and community/project dimensions
Focus on technical aspects (like most other SU Guides)
Promote a particular intervention alternative (WATSAN, streets, etc.)
Say comprehensive upgrading is necessary from the outset
Promote citywide is the only way to do SU
Say that an expensive, comprehensive programme is required before any action can happen
Ignore the political economy of slum upgrading
Attempt to be the 'final word' or the 'only word' on SU The Guide
Does: Does not: Linkages and value added to PSUP P S U P The Do's and Don'ts of CWSU Tenure security: No forced evictions; Interventions or actions must improve slum dwellers' security of tenure
Affordability: Infrastructure and service improvements must be affordable to the slum population
Participation: Meaningful participation of all stakeholders at all stages: project formulation, design, implementation and monitoring/evaluation
Gender and Youth: Their full participation should be promoted and guaranteed at all stages
Invest in existing physical, social and organizational resources in slum settlements (10% community contracts?)
Urban planning: Legally recognize slums and include in the development plans and policies
Accountability: Use an RBM approach for slum upgrading projects and programmes Potential inputs to PSUP Principles CWSU is an alternative to piecemeal project-based slum improvement. It is a programmatic way of addressing the challenge of slums and informal settlements in a city aiming at the physical, social, juridical and economic integration of all slums into the official planning and urban management systems that govern the city. It takes the entire city as the planning unit such that upgrading is not limited to a few slum communities but becomes a programmatic process encompassing all slums of the city.
Explore the role of streets and public space in slum upgrading
Explicitly focus on the perceptions 'on the ground' and use of the streets
Show that the process in Korogocho was not perfect
Show that the end product was not perfect
Document the process and product
Aims to generate key lessons and recommendations Korogocho Streetscapes
Does: Does not: "As a former mayor, I have already a strong conviction on the need to reassert urban design and planning as two key development drivers of contemporary city building. By laying streets and setting out public space in slums, you delineate public and private space and begin an urban transformation and regeneration that encourages prosperous cities...

Streets are an opportune entry point for successful slum upgrading for three reasons:
First, the planning of streets and public space provides an accessible and positive forum for community participation. ...

Second, urban planning and the laying of streets can help generate wealth. Micro-enterprise activity springs up on street corners, new services and products reach slum households and new jobs are created.

Third, planning street upgrades or creating new streets in all slums in the city helps us 'go to scale' and connect the slums with the wider urban fabric of the city." Dr Joan Clos, Executive Director, UN-Habitat

Korogocho Streetscapes (2012) p. vi. A tool for country teams
Particularly with respect to how to build on the existing situation in slums
Provides specific tools, for example:
Involving Youth and children through mapping exercises
Mapping existing social capital and amenities
Mapping activities, lifestyles and flows (not only deprivations)
At some point streets will need to be included in our Phase 3 projects. If we cannot do streets then let's at least support our partners to make great streets and public space, particularly if they will do it anyway (e.g. Mtwapa)
Guidance: 11 recommendations and many recommended actions Linkages and value added to PSUP Chapter 1: Introduction Background
Streetscapes in Korogocho
Study purpose
Study approach
Conceptual framework
Structure of publication Chapter 2: The Urban
Challenge Urbanisation and slums
The Kenyan Context
Nairobi Context
Korogocho context
Slum upgrading approaches
The KSUP Streets in human settlements
Streets as public space
Streets and democracy
Streets in slums
Streets for safety and security
Streets for economic prosperity
Threats to vibrant streets
Streets in Slum Upgrading
KSUP street project Chapter 3: The Role of
Streets Form - types of streets
Activities - use of streets
Attraction points
Activity mapping
Street flows
Capital flows
Conception - perceptions of streets
Safety and security
Sense of belonging and appropriation
Social relations
Improvement ideas from community Chapter 4: Field Study
Findings 1. Korogocho has become more spatially and socially integrated within Nairobi and mobility inside the area has increased
2. Increased business activities and increased accessibility and availability of everyday commodities
3. Residents’ perception of safety has improved
4. The form of the street does not respond to, or exploit options for different uses
5. The modes of participation in the planning process did not respond to all groups in Korogocho
6. The residents express varying concern for the future of Korogocho
7. Streets are not the solution to everything Chapter 5: Main lessons
and key findings Chapter 6:
11 Recommendations for street upgrading practice 1. Integrate streets with wider upgrading programmes •Develop frameworks to enable the collaboration between different agencies, programmes and political levels.
•Establish platforms for information exchange.
•Evaluate the process and communicate the lessons learned for future implementations. 2. Promote secure tenure with streets as an entry point •Make enumerations prior to any physical intervention.
•Ensure that costs and finance are kept within affordable ranges for all stakeholders.
•Emphasize an incremental process to limit the shock of gentrification.
•Address and map ownership structures to promote security of tenure for all. 3. Prohibit forced evictions and facilitate relocation •Prepare and make certain that there is land available for relocation.
•Ensure that the relocation land is located in proximity to the former area of residence.
•Do not only provide land. Support people in the whole relocation process, assist in building houses as sustainable investments for the future. 4. Let the residents
own the process to increase the likelihood of care about the project outcome
•Develop and use tools to address power relations and hidden interests that ensure involvement of affected stakeholders in the participation process.
•Identify the less vocal groups in the community, and make sure that they are you addressed them too.
•Balance acupunctural interventions with long-term implementations: the community need results in order to invest their time.
•Allow the participation process to take time, the project outcome will benefit from it in the long-term. 5. Develop appropriate communication channels for transparency in the process
•Develop and use tools to reach out to residents that do not actively take part in community activities. Information walks, text message newsletters, flyers and local radio are useful channels.
•Identify and use available (neutral) public places and institutions as platforms of information, such as schools, streets, hospitals and churches.
•Consider the temporal aspect when staging participatory activities. Some stakeholder groups might not be available at certain times of the day. 6. Acknowledge that
the perceived quality of streets depends on physical measures and local attitudes •Ensure that the best physical quality possible is implemented.
•Discuss design and quality issues and limitations with stakeholders, such as budget and environmental issues, and come up with priorities and solutions together.
•Engage local labour. This creates local job opportunities, empowers the community, brings attachment to the project and lowers implementation costs (leaving more resources to use high quality materials). 7. Identify existing social networks and activities and respond to them in the layout •Make a comprehensive situation analysis of the existing social infrastructure in the area, and use the streets as a link to support and improve it.
•Identify existing spatial components in the area that function as boosters for activity and urban life and build the intervention around these.
•Identify hidden attraction points and destinations through meaningful dialogue and interaction with residents. 8. Design streets as networks of public space •Identify unobvious meeting places and space linkages through intensive dialogue and interaction with residents.
•Involve the community in the design of the public space connected to the streetscape.
•Ensure that the layout of the street provides pockets of public space that is free for the residents to collectively appropriate. 9. Design flexible streets that respond to multiple uses and temporal aspects of street life •Make a comprehensive survey of existing traffic flows and activities early in the layout process.
•Educate the residents on how to use street as part of the layout process. As children are the most vulnerable group the schools could be used as entry points.
•Work with, not against, the informal in slums (activities, commerce, etc.). Attempts to constrain and formalize the informal are seldom successful in improving the lives of slum dwellers. 10. Make comprehensive street designs, don’t just lay paving •Consider physical components to ensure existing vital aspects of social life in the streets are upheld.
•Use the street as an entry-point to improve physical conditions such as drainage, waste management, sewer lines, streetlights, electricity lines and access to basic services.
•Expand social implementations beyond physical measures to include soft values such as education and empowerment practices. 11. It doesn’t end here: recognize the importance of maintenance •Keep maintenance in mind already during the street layout and planning process.
•Develop long-term maintenance plans in conjunction with the residents and define clear roles and responsibilities.
•Establish partnerships between the community and the government to implement sustainable management plans.
•Monitor and evaluate maintenance plans and adjust accordingly before interventions are beyond repair. Korogocho Streetscapes Documenting the role and potentials of streets in slum upgrading Say all slum upgrading should start with laying streets
Focus on the institutional and policy areas
Present the process as a perfect 'best practice' case
Present the end product as perfect

Evaluate the project
Aim to just be a descriptive study
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