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Andrew Jackson - Methods, Objectives, Successes, Failures
Transcript of Andrew Jackson - Methods, Objectives, Successes, Failures
Indian Removal Act (1830)- allowed Jackson to negotiate with tribes east of Mississippi for removal to western lands
Five Civilized Tribes:
Cherokee Legal Cases Cherokee Nation v. Georgia (1831)
Worcester v. Georgia (1832) Jackson's Presidency Road to Presidency 1767 Born - Frontier TN/ SC - Cherokees sued GA for creating laws that “go directly to annihilate the Cherokees as a political society”
- Supreme Court ruled that Cherokees were not a "foreign nation" and therefore the case could not be tried in Supreme Court → denied injunction - Worcester → white missionary living on Cherokee land in spite of Georgian laws prohibiting whites living on Indian land without a license
- Court ruled that Georgia had no right to impose state laws on Cherokee land Studied Law Scotch-Irish 1787 Frontiersman Rough-and-tumble lawyer 1812 Commander Lieutenant militia War 1812 - Battle of Horseshoe bend Trail of Tears Battle of New Orleans: Treaty of New Echota → Cherokee nation signed treaty for removal
→ 14,000 signed petition in protest
→ U.S. sent 7,000 soldiers to force Cherokees to move west
→ 4,000 Cherokees died January, 8 1815
4,000 US vs. 11,000 Brits National Hero Federalists 1824 Election of 1824 Virginia Dynasty King Caucus Bank of the United States 12 amendment - House of Reps 99 Jackson - 84 Adams 1828 Adams Henry Clay Main reasons for dislike of BUS:
- Bank was unconstitutional
- dangerous to freedom
Jackson's main opposition:
- Nicholas Biddle → BUS President
- Henry Clay → Speaker of the House - America System Internal Improvements Personality Inefficiency Education - Dad John Adams Democratization Increased Suffrage Democratic Revolution Local gov't offices by popular vote Requirements for voting ease State Legislatures/ Senators "Workies" -> Working man's party Common man - Politics - Anti- Masonic Party Rebelled against established, elitists Secretive, rituals Election of 1828 Jackson Adams Incendiary temper 'Yankee' business maker Jackson's Wife - bigamy, adultery American-Russian Sexual Relations money squandering Violence Hated Attacks, stopped communication Told Press what to write
- How to Counter Attacks 1.15 Million Democratic, Mudslinging Campaign Founding Fathers? 83 Votes 178 Votes 2 Party System - Clay and Biddle sought Congressional recharter- 1832 (4 years early)
- Jackson vetoed recharter
- removed funds from BUS and placed funds in pet banks → banks controlled by Jackson's supporters Administration Panic of 1837 Spoil System Removing political opponents from Office → Loyalist - reckless state banks gave out too many loans
- speculation boom → inflation → defaults on loans → panic Partisan loyalty > Merit-base system Rewarded Supporters -- higher gov't jobs IRONY : unqualified officials took office Executive Branch Kitchen Cabinet Unofficial presidential cabinet Frontiers men, Newspaper editors "Common man" -
Importance of Public Opinion Executive Branch Veto May 27th, 1830 - Veto
Maysville Road: construct a road linking Lexington and the Ohio River → state of Kentucky. July 10th, 1832 - Veto
Second Bank of the United States Re-Charter Used 12 times --> 6 preceding Presidents : 10 times Executive Power Pocket Veto - Policy vs. protective tariffs and transportation subsidies demonstrated in vetoing bill to aid Maysville Road - Kentucky 1830
- halting internal improvements
- Renounced protection in 1831 - endorsed reduction in rates (advocated minimal government) Maysville Road Veto Contentious Relationship Liberty, Fearful of Corruption Nullification, Free trade Secession "Our federal Union - it must be preserved" States Rights, Limited Gov't "Concurrent Majority" - Jackson Tariff of 1828 May 19, 1828 Tariff to protect industry Short Run: South > taxes -- disproportional rates Long Run: independent economy Nullification "the right of a State to interpose, in the last resort, in order to arrest an unconstitutional act of the General Government, within its limits." - Calhoun Force Bill March 2, 1833 "Use whatever force necessary to enforce Federal Bills" - Jackson Divide Tariff of 1833 - Clay & Calhoun: Gradual reduction of rates --> 1842 American System
Maysville Road vetoed bill that would have helped Maysville Road in Kentucky → reversed support of internal improvement spending at first in support because of national merits
lost Jackson's support because of sectionalist anger and dispute over tariff build strength economic independence Outline Esme Ricardo Road to Presidency Elections 1824-1828 Relation to Calhoun Nullification Crisis Maysville Road Presidency Bank of the United States Indian Removal Policy Trial of Tears Class Successes and Failures