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General MacArthur

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Zerlinda Phun

on 15 April 2013

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Transcript of General MacArthur

By Zerlinda Phun 10J General MacArthur Who was General MacArthur? What was General MacArthur's life like after the war? Born in Little Rock, Arkansas, America on January 26, 1880, Douglas MacArthur came from a strong military family. His father, Arthur MacArthur was a recognised army officer and later went on to become a lieutenant general who fought in the Union Army during the Civil War. His mother, Mary was from Virginia and her brothers, MacArthur’s uncles were also part of the Civil War, fighting for the South. MacArthur was the youngest of three sons in his family but sadly one of his brothers died of measles when MacArthur was three. His family lived in Washington, D.C where MacArthur attended the Force Public School before his family moved to San Antonio, Texas in 1893 due to his father’s duties. He went to West Texas Military School in 1899 where he played a variety of sports including tennis, baseball and football. Not only did MacArthur excel at sport his was also a high academic achiever. In 1903 MacArthur graduated from the Military Academy in Texas to achieve honours and went on to become a Junior Officer in the United Stated Army Corps of Engineers. He worked for the Army Corps of Engineers for 10 years where he was frequently promoted working in countries including Philippines, Japan, Mexico and France. While working in Fort Leavenworth in the US, MacArthur was given his first leading role by commanding the Company K, 3rd Engineer Battalion. He was also part of the Veracruz expedition to take over Veracruz in Mexico where a railroad was needed to be able to reach their chosen destination. Because they didn’t have any trains, MacArthur went with a group of soldiers to see if they could find any left in the open. As they were coming back from their journey, MacArthur and the soldiers were attacked by a group of armed men. After shooting most of the men, they were eventually able to return with three trains. One of MacArthur’s fellow soldiers nominated him for the Medal of Honour for his bravery and quick thinking but was unfortunately denied. The board thought that it would be a bad example if he got an award as he did not tell the General Commander of his plans before he went off. Douglas MacArthur Before The War Before America was involved in World War II, General MacArthur was the Commanding General of the United States Armed Forces. When Japan bombed Pearl Harbour in December, 1941, America declared war and MacArthur was promoted to Full General where his role was to protect the Philippine islands from enemy attacks. MacArthur’s defence plan was unsuccessful so when Japan invaded the Philippines, President Roosevelt knew that he needed to save MacArthur’s reputation so he flew him and his family and a few other senior officers to Australia. Before MacArthur left, he addressed the Filipino people and said “I shall return”, leaving thousands of American soldiers to fight for themselves. During the two and a half years MacArthur was in Australia, he was the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific Area. His role was to control and look after all the allied naval, land and air forces in the Pacific. As promised, MacArthur returned to the Philippines in 1944 as the General of the Army where he slowly fought back the enemy and gained control of the Philippine islands once again. MacArthur witnessed the surrender of Japan in September 1945 on the ship “U.S.S Missouri” after America dropped two atomic bombs on the Japanese cities, Hiroshima and Nagasaki which officially ended World War II. What were General MacArthur's roles and accomplishments in World War II? After Japan surrendered to end World War II in September, 1945, General MacArthur was appointed Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers. He was responsible for their military forces and rebuilding of Japan where he was seen as a dictator to the Japanese people. But because he was still an American soldier, MacArthur had to follow the orders given by the American government. Their initial plans were to punish Japan, get their economy up and going again and most of all was to form a peace treaty and alliance with Japan. The emperor of Japan at the time, Hirohito was not put to trail for the things he did during the war because MacArthur was worried that if he was, chaos would arise among the people. One of the first things MacArthur changed about the Japanese law was that he made sure that everybody had a voice and equal rights. Women were also allowed to vote and have an education just like men thanks to MacArthur. One of the biggest changes was that Japan became a democratic country where the people were able to form their own political parties and were free to elect whoever they wanted in the government. People had the choice of following their own religion and the Japanese people were no longer ruled by superiors. Although MacArthur had power over Japan, he did not punish them but instead helped them recover and fought for them. He protected Japan; made sure they were being fair and changed the country for the better. Why did General MacArthur play an important part in the recovery of Japan after the war? After President Truman dismissed him from his role as Commander in 1951, General MacArthur moved back to the United States in Washington, D.C where he lived with his second wife, Jean Faircloth and thirteen year old son Arthur. Even though he had retired from his military career, MacArthur worked with many presidents such as John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, giving them advice on military strategies and other matters. He was also put up as a potential Republican presidential candidate but the campaigns did not develop further. After living in Washington for a few years, MacArthur and his wife moved to New York City where he was chosen as the chairman of the board for a company which made typewriters and computers, Remington Rand. As well as being chairman of Remington Rand, MacArthur wrote many journal entries in his spare time reflecting on his years at war. The entries were later on published in his autobiography named “Reminiscences” and were also released in chapters in “Life” magazine. MacArthur died on April 5, 1964 in Washington, D.C, United States at the age of 84. A state funeral was held and MacArthur was buried at the Douglas MacArthur Memorial in Norfolk, Virginia. There is a museum collection at the Memorial where pictures, notes and documents displayed the events of his military service. His wife, Jean, was also buried next to MacArthur when she died. Although many Americans have forgotten about General MacArthur, other people living in Japan and the Philippines still see him as a hero. He lived a controversial life but overall people today see him as an American general who was a man of honour and kept his promised. Medal of Honour General MacArthur was awarded the Medal of Honour in 1942 for his leadership and bravery when fighting the Japanese forces and returning to the Philippines. He put his life at risk to lead an army into enemy lines to take down Japan despite the bombs and heavy fire. MacArthur inspired other soldiers, he kept calm in dangerous situations gave faith to the American public. Army Distinguished Service Medal This prestigious medal was awarded to General MacArthur for his role as Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in the Southwest Pacific since March 1942. Despite treacherous terrains and climates, MacArthur had caused great damage to the enemy with his tactical strategies. Distinguished Service Cross MacArthur’s true heroism was shown when he ran 70 metres into the enemy territory while being attacked with cannons and weapons. He was awarded this medal as he was willing to fight for his country and was a great role model for all. "Old soldiers never die... they just fade away" Son, Arthur and Wife, Jean Arthur Autobiography Douglas MacArthur Memorial Young Douglas MacArthur General MacArthur Japan surrenders, ending World War II Japanese women putting up posters of MacArthur Veracruz Railroad General MacArthur
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