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Aidan Pollock

on 4 October 2015

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Transcript of Euthanasia

Physician Assisted Suicide (PAS)
Definitions and Introduction
Ethical Implications
Pros & Cons
UK vs Norway
Personal Reflections
Ethical Implications

1. Autonomy - freedom of choice

2. Beneficence - action is done for the benefit of others

3. Non-maleficence - avoiding the causation of harm

4. Justice - fair and equal treatment

5. Confidentiality - keep patient information private

Pros & Cons
The literature is split for and against PAS.
With proper monitoring & evaluating - clinicians are okay with the idea of PAS.
73% of GP's in Ireland generally against PAS.
80% of GP's in Germany generally for PAS.
Physicians in the UK are neutral towards PAS. But strongly against Euthanasia. This shows the massive difference between the two.
We all agree that PAS should be legalized with proper and safe guidelines and laws in place. This would include a case by case approval for PAS from a board of clinicians and psychologists.
Euthanasia is killing on request, it can be defined as "A doctor intentionally killing a person by the administration of drugs yet at that person’s voluntary and competent request"

Physician-assisted suicide (PAS) is defined as
"A doctor intentionally helping a person to commit suicide by providing drugs for self-administration, at that person’s voluntary and competent request"
United Kingdom:

- Up to 14 years imprisonment for anybody assisting a suicide

- A person who assists another take their own life is criminally liable on a number of fronts such as:

- Recklessly endangering human life

- Culpable homicide

- Wicket relentlessness

Physician Assisted Suicide
Subject: Death, Dying & Grief (PHE3DDB - BU)
La Trobe University : Bachelor of Health Sciences

By Aidan Pollock, Matthew Ferlazzo, Stephanie Ng, Jacinda Chung & Sam Gilmore

Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: a view from an EAPC Ethics Task Force (2003)
Advokate Life and Education Services. (2014, November 25).
Euthanasia and Physician Assisted Suicide FAQ - Video 1
[Video file]. Retrieved from

Battin, M. P., Van der Heide, A., Ganzini, L., Van der Wal, G., & Onwuteaka-Philipsen, B. D. (2007). Legal physician-assisted dying in Oregon and the Netherlands: evidence concerning the impact on patients in “vulnerable” groups.
Journal of Medical Ethics
, 33(10), 591-597. doi: 10.1136/jme.2007.022335

Beuchamp, T.L. (1999). The medical ethics of physician-assisted suicide.
Journal of Medical Ethics
, 25(6). 437-439. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ez.library.latrobe.edu.au/docview/216362709?OpenUrlRefld=info:xri/sid:primo&accountid=12001

Council, P. R. (2013). Background About Euthanasia in the Netherlands. Retrieved from http://www.patientsrightscouncil.org/site/holland-background/

George, R. J. D., Finlay, I. G., & Jeffrey, D. (2005). Taking the Final Step: changing the law on euthanasia and physician assisted suicide: Legalised euthanasia will violate the rights of vulnerable patients.
BMJ: British Medical Journal,
331(7518), 684. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org.ez.library.latrobe.edu.au/stable/25460904

Gielen, J., Van den Branden, S., & Broeckaert, B. (2008). Attitudes of European physicians toward euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: a review of the recent literature.
Journal of Palliative Care
, 24(3), 173 -84. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com/docview/214197993?accountid=12001

Harris, D., Richard, B., & Khanna, P. (2006). Assisted dying: the ongoing debate.
Postgraduate Medical Journal
, 82(970), 479 - 482. doi: 10.1136/pgmj.2006.047530
The freedom to choose
An end to suffering
Dying with dignity, rather than being dependent on others (life support)
Violates the doctor's Hippocratic oath
Life is sacred, helping to end it is morally unacceptable
Taking the easy way out
Humphry, D. (2010, August 28). World Laws On Assisted Suicide. Retrieved from http://www.finalexit.org/assisted_suicide_world_laws_page2.html

Knowles, L. & The Foothill Dragon Press. (November 19, 2014).
Physician Assisted Suicide.
Retrieved from http://foothilldragonpress.org/legalize-physician-assisted-suicide/

Materstvedt, L. J., Clark, D., Ellershaw, J., Forde, R., Gravgaard, A. M. B., Muller-Busch, H. C., ... & Rapin, C. H. (2003). Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: a view from an EAPC Ethics Task Force. Palliative Medicine, 17(2), 97-101. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1191/0269216303pm673oa

Permitted, P. A. S. S. B. (2013). Physician-Assisted Suicide. New England Journal of Medicine, 2013(368), 1450-1452. doi: 10.1056/NEJMclde1302615

Snyder, L. (2001). Bioethics, Assisted Suicide, and the "Right to Die". Annals of Clinical Psychiatry, 11(1). Retrieved from http://search.roquest.com.ez.library.latrobe.edu.au/docview/21884344?OpenUrlRefId=info:xri/sid:primo&accountid=12001

The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (May 2011). Physician Assisted Suicide. Retrieved from https://www.ranzcp.org/Files/Resources/College_Statements/Position_Statements/ps67-pdf.aspx
- The Dutch Penal Code Articles 293 and 294 make both euthanasia and PAS illegal unless following the following protocols.

1. Patient must be experiencing unbearable pain (includes psychic suffering or the “potential disfigurement of personality”
2. Patient must be conscious
3. Death request must be voluntary
4. Patient must have been given alternatives to euthanasia and time to consider these alternatives
5. There must be no other reasonable solution to the problem
6. Patient’s death cannot inflict unnecessary suffering on others
7. There must be more than one person involved in the euthanasia decision
8. Only a doctor can euthanise a patient
9. Great care must be taken in actually making the death decision

Spoken by Jacinda
Spoken by Stephanie
Spoken by Matthew
Spoken by Matthew
Spoken by Aidan + Sam

Spoken by Aidan
Spoken by Aidan
Spoken by Aidan
(Advokate Life and Education Services, 2014)
Figure 1.
Knowles, L. & The Foothill Dragon Press. (November 19, 2014).
Physician Assisted Suicide.
Retrieved from http://foothilldragonpress.org/legalize-physician-assisted-suicide/
Figure 3
Figure 4
Figure 5
Figure 6
Full transcript