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Accounts of Discourse Markers

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Addeh Hovassapian

on 11 August 2011

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Transcript of Accounts of Discourse Markers

Accounts of Discourse Markers in English
by
Miri Hussein Presenters:
Addeh Hovassapian
Anna Bayburdyan
Syuzanna Torosyan
Adelina Khachaturyan Discourse Markers Relevance-based Account Thanks For Your Attention Coherence-based Account 4 1 2 3 What is Coherence? Schiffrin’s account of
discourse markers Fraser’s account of
discourse markers The difference between
Schiffrin’s and Fraser’s
accounts Deborah Schiffrin is Chair of the Department of Linguistics at Georgetown University.

She is an expert in Sociolinguistics, Discourse Analysis and Pragmatics. Bruce Fraser is a Professor of Linguistics and Education at Boston University as well as a labor arbitrator/mediator. His research interests lie in pragmatics, forensic linguistics, and discourse analysis. Schiffrin maintains that DMs contribute
to the coherence of the text. She studied the DMs by a multilateral approach She claimed that DMs should be
considered as linguistic devices Schiffrin also states that DMs facilitate interpretation of
inforamtion in a discourse.
(Coherence) Local Coherence DMs = Coherence-based DMs = Linguistic expressions Schiffrin Fraser Local Coherence Global Coherence Semantic Status Having Refrential Meaning
Lacking Refrencial Meaning
Having Referencial Meaning - Sentential Structure Structural and Linguistic Role Pragmatic Status Concentrates on Cognitive Role DMs are Procedural Levels of Discourse Ideational
(Linguistic) Interactional
(Non-linguistic) ‘And’ and ‘but’ ‘Because’ and ‘so’ ‘Now’ and ‘then’ ‘Oh’ and ‘well’ ‘Y’know’ and ‘I mean’ View's DMs as facilitator of
cognitive effect's interpretation
(Pragmatic Device) Lexical expressions that
relate discourse units View's DMs as indicators of coherence
relations between discourse units
(Linguistic Device) Can have the following forms: Ellipsis, Co-reference, Conjunction Contributes to the texts' semantic structure Cohesion plays a key role in this process They are crucial for the notion of text Lexical & Grammatical Cohesion Fraser points out that DMs should be
distinguished from function words. Fraser is concerned with the following questions: What are DMs?

What are not DMs?

What is the grammatical status of DMs?

What do DMs link? “A class of lexical expressions drawn primarily from the syntactic classes of
conjunctions, adverbs and prepositional phrases. With certain exceptions, they
signal a relationship between the interpretation of the segment they introduce
S2, and the prior segment, S1. They have core meaning which is procedural,
not conceptual, and their more specific interpretation is ‘negotiated’ by the
context, both linguistic and conceptual.
(Fraser (1999:831) Fraser is concerned with the following questions: What are DMs? What are not DMs? What is the grammatical status of DMs? What do DMs link? “A class of lexical expressions drawn primarily from the syntactic classes of
conjunctions, adverbs and prepositional phrases. With certain exceptions, they
signal a relationship between the interpretation of the segment they introduce
S2, and the prior segment, S1." (Fraser (1999:831) a. You should help John in his maths homework.
b. Frankly, I am not very good at maths. a. Laura studied very hard. But she failed her exam.
b. He took the metro. So, he arrived on time. Global Coherence
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