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Pretest, immediate retention, 48 hr retention
All scores converted to measures of AE (absolute error) Purpose: Purpose 1: to investigate the performance change of moderately skilled basketball players, passing accuracy with a practice schedule consisting of gradual increase of CI compared to blocked (low CI) and random (high CI). Critique When does practice change from low to high CI?
A wider spectrum of participants
All males in study
Practice unrealistic in relation to skill level
Scoring chart Scoring Guide Pretest results: no difference between groups
Immediate Retention: Increasing group performed better than blocked group
48 hr Retention: Increasing group scored higher than blocked or random group. Purpose 2: to investigate if these learning benefits persisted for multiple days Hypothesis Moderately skilled participants following a practice schedule with gradual CI increases over multiple days would display superior performance on a retention test compared to equally skilled participants practicing the same task following blocked or random schedules Discussion The results suggest that coaches working with moderately skilled athletes could benefit from progressing from a blocked practice to a more random practice, and increasing CI during "Desirable Difficulty" Moderately Skilled Learners Benefit by
Practicing with Systematic Increases in
Contextual Interference Esmaeel Saemi, Jared M. Porter* Mind Map Presented by: Emily, James, & Trevor Who: Method Continued... 3 Types of passes were practiced: 2 handed chest pass, 2 handed overhand, single arm pass (with dominant arm) Working Definitions: Contextual Interference: Adding randomness to a series of skills (e.g. Going from block to random practice) Absolute Error: the difference between an estimated or measured value and it's actual value Strengths: Weaknesses: Critique Recap! Over a period of multiple days, athletes/participants were able to decrease their error score on a retention test by using gradual CI increases over blocked or random practice
therefore, this increasing CI style proves to be most beneficial for coaches Participants practiced 81 trials per day for five consecutive days Because participants were all successful in the passing test during their activity course, there was no instruction or feedback about technique or strategy during the experiment 3 Groups: Blocked (Low CI), Random (High CI), Increasing CI Series of Retention Test's Length of study (Over 5 days) Layout of study (Using Various forms to implement CI) One of the primary duties of all
athletic coaches is to create practice
environments that improve athletic
performance. This study tries to help coaches find
the most beneficial ways how athletes
should practice a skill.