Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

Make your likes visible on Facebook?

Connect your Facebook account to Prezi and let your likes appear on your timeline.
You can change this under Settings & Account at any time.

No, thanks

Cultural Psychology

No description
by

Seul Lee

on 24 January 2013

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Cultural Psychology

Chipmanzees Introduction ancestors? <Contents> *Introduction
*Why is Studying Culture
Important for Social Psychology?
*The Self-Concept
*Motivation
*Relationships
*Cognition and Perception
*Emotion to Steve Jobs 1. Ways of thinking vary accross cultural contexts.
2. It helps to understand nature of psychological proccesses. Steven J. Heine Ch18_Cultural Psychology The Self-Concept *Independent vs. Interdependent The Self-Concept *Self-Consistency vs. Flexibility The Self-Concept *Self-Consistency vs. Flexibility Why is Studying Culture
Important for Social Psychology? The Self-Concept *Independent vs. Interdependent Self-Concepts
*Self-Consistency vs. Flexibility
*Insider vs. Outsider Phenomenological Experiences
*Multicultural Selves The Self-Concept *Multicultural Selves The Self-Concept *Multicultural Selves Mueller-Lyer Illusion 1. The self is formed as a person grows up.

2. It is evident that culture influences this formation.
*Kuhn& McPartland (1954) used the Twenty
Statements Test

3. Independent vs. Interdependent 1. What "the dominant view: people strive to be consistent"
is missing.

2. Those with interdependent views of self : less consistent
*Kanagawa, Cross, & Markus (2001) Japanese' self-descriptions
*Oishi, Diener, Scollon, & Biswas-Diener (2004) Emotional
variability across situations of non-westerners 3. East Asians embrace more contradictory self-views.
Ex1) Chinese self-evaluations show ambivalence.
Ex2) Koreans endorce contradictory personality traits.

4. Being consistent across cultures have less meaning to
East Asians than to Westerners.

<Interesting Points>
-This does not mean non-westerners have unstable self-
concepts
-East Asians have different kinds of consistency needs The Self-Concept *Insider vs. Outsider Phenomenological Experiences 1. Independent cultural context
-insider phenomenological experience
-learn what you want, go out and get it

2. Interdependent cultural context
-outsider phenomenological experience
-propriety and circumspection is important
for harmony The Self-Concept *Multicultrual Selves Motivation * Motivations for Self-Enhancement & Self-Esteem
*Approach & Avoidance Motivations
*Agency & Control
*Motivations to Fit in or to Stick Out
*Motivations for Honor Motivation * Motivations for Self-Enhancement & Self-Esteem Motivation *Motivations for Self-Enhancement & Self-Esteem Motivation *Motivations for Self-Enhancement & Self-Esteem 1. Multicultural people have multiple self-concepts and
typically reflect a blending of these.

2. Multicultural people activate their different self-
concepts according to surroundings or primes
(aka. Frame-switching). <Two perspectives> *Hong et al. (2000) Hong Kong Chinese primed with Three
different cultural icons (Chinese/Neutral/American)

*Such frame-switching does not always occur in biculturals;
integrated cultural identities > opposing cultural identities
2nd generation immigrants > 1st generation immigrants <Frame-Switching> 1. "Frame-switching" of multiculturals suggest
multiple knowledge structures

2. Guess what? Monoculturals can also frame-switch!
(Although to a different degree)

3. Additionally- Creativity 1. Key motivations vary according to culture.

2. Independent vs. Interdependent cultural context
*30 out of 31 Experiments had the same conclusion;
"East Asians have little motivation to enhance self,
instead openly attend to negative feedback." <Alternative Explanations> 1. East Asians are more interested in enhancing group-self.

2. East Asians enhance self in subjectively important matters.
*Better-than-Average-Effect vs. Majority of other studies

3. East Asians display to be self-critical, but secretly enhance
their self.
*1 out of 31 experiments: the IAT & incredibility Motivation *Approach & Avoidance Motivations Motivation *Agency & Control Motivation *Motivation to Fit in or to Stick Out Motivation *Motivations for Honor <The Cross-Historical Approach> 1. Chronological variation in Self-esteem
*Twenge & Campbell (2001) used Rosenberg
self-esteem scale with US college students

;Explanation of high self-esteem of Americans
is the independent cultural context 1. Approach & avoidance motivations differ
according to culture.

2. East Asians show high avoidance motivation
and low approach motivation; reverse to
Westerners. 1. Independent context
*Incremental Theory: flexible world/ fixed self
-primary control, agency in self

2. Interdependent context
*Entity Theory: fixed world/ flexible self
-secondary control, agency in group

3. Agency in making choices 1. Motivation to Fit in
*Bond & Smith (1996) Americans want to
conform. East Asians exceed this desire.

2. Motivation to Stick Out
*Kim & Markus (1999) Independent self
chose unusual pens while interdependent
chose usual pens. 1. Studies across Southern/Northern America
*Nisbett & Cohen (1996) Southern US protects
honor with aggression.

2. Data converge to prove so. Relationships 1. Culture shapes how people relate to others.

2. Interdependent vs. Independent
-the meaning of ingroup/outgroup

3. Interdependent cultural context: distinction
between ingroup/ outgroup is strong
*Iyengar & Lepper (1999) choice made by others/
social loafing Relationships 3. Relational Mobility
-Independent: voluntary basis with benefit
: often formation-dissolution

-Interdependent: less conditional, more fixed
: less opportunities to new
relationships
: ambivalent feeling
Cognition and Perception *Analytic vs. Holistic Thinking
*Attention to Objects & Fields
*Reasoning Styles
*Explaining the Behavior of Others Cognition and Perception *Analytic vs. Holistic Thinking 1. Analytic thinking vs. Holistic thinking

2. Nisbett & Friends (2003) found: Analytic
thinking is common in Western culture
whereas holistic thinking is in East Asia. Cognition and Perception *Attention to Objects & Fields 1. Field Independence

2. Americans & Westerners vs. Non-Westerners
*Masuda & Nisbett (2001) Focal object w/
background change
*Chua, Boland & Nisbett (2005) Eye Tracker

3. Difference in field independence also shows
in forms of art. Cognition and Perception *Reasoning Styles 1. Difference in grouping objects is due to
social interdependence.
*Norenzayan & Friends (2002) Chinese vs.
Americans in grouping objects

2. The holistic orientation is more tolerant
with contradiction & less linear in future
prediction.
Cognition and Perception *Explaining the Behaviors of Others 1. Same incident, different accounts
-Westerners focus on person's disposition
-Non-westerners focus on situational info

2. Non-westerners are unique in focusing on
situational information more.

Emotion *Emotions & Facial Expressions
*Intensity of Emotional Experience
*Kinds of Emotional Experiences
*Emotion & Language
*Cultural Variation in Subjective Well-being
& Happiness Emotion *Emotions & Facial Expressions 1. Darwin's (1872/1965) suggestion

2. Ekman & Friends Many researches
*(1971) By 80-90% People from different cultures
understood facial expressions
*(2002) Facial expressions of a person from same
cultural background is easier to tell
*Yuki & Friends (2007) Different use of face for
expression accross culture
*(1969) Display rules Emotion *Intensity of Emotional Expression Q. Is there a parallel between differences and
similarities in facial expressions to that of
cultural factors?

*Matsumoto & Friends (1988) Intensity of
display rules of Japan vs. US
*Mesquita & Friends (2002) Japanese three times
less aroused emotionally than Americans
*Anderson & Friends (2006) Heart rate and anger Emotion *Kinds of Emotional Experiences *Mesquita (2001) Experiencing emotion differs
according to self
-Interdependent: Concerned with harmony
-Independent: Concerned how one was affected

*Kitayama et al. (2000) Frequency/ valence/
interpersonal engagement of emotion
-Interdependent: respect, friendly feelings
-Independent: pride, on top of the world Emotion *Emotion & Language 1. Categorization of emotions differ
ex) Buganda: sorrow=anger
Aborigines: "gurakadj"= shame & fear
Samoans: "alofa"= love & pity

2. The term "emotion" differs Emotion *Cultural Variation in Subjective Well-Being & Happiness 1. Worldwide gap in happiness

2. Money means happiness?

3. Life satisfaction differs across cultures
:Positive affect vs. Being respected

4. Variation of desired positive emotions
:High arousal vs. Low arousal Let's Discuss... 1. Motivation) Agency and Control
-Virginia Tech Massacre
2. Motivation) Motivations of Honor
-Honor&anger? Korean/Asian honor?
3. Relationships) Friends of friends
4. Facial Expressions)
-Hello Kitty's smile
5. What makes you happy?
6. Really? Being respected above
having positive affect?
Full transcript