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Transcript of Cultural Psychology
*Why is Studying Culture
Important for Social Psychology?
*Cognition and Perception
*Emotion to Steve Jobs 1. Ways of thinking vary accross cultural contexts.
2. It helps to understand nature of psychological proccesses. Steven J. Heine Ch18_Cultural Psychology The Self-Concept *Independent vs. Interdependent The Self-Concept *Self-Consistency vs. Flexibility The Self-Concept *Self-Consistency vs. Flexibility Why is Studying Culture
Important for Social Psychology? The Self-Concept *Independent vs. Interdependent Self-Concepts
*Self-Consistency vs. Flexibility
*Insider vs. Outsider Phenomenological Experiences
*Multicultural Selves The Self-Concept *Multicultural Selves The Self-Concept *Multicultural Selves Mueller-Lyer Illusion 1. The self is formed as a person grows up.
2. It is evident that culture influences this formation.
*Kuhn& McPartland (1954) used the Twenty
3. Independent vs. Interdependent 1. What "the dominant view: people strive to be consistent"
2. Those with interdependent views of self : less consistent
*Kanagawa, Cross, & Markus (2001) Japanese' self-descriptions
*Oishi, Diener, Scollon, & Biswas-Diener (2004) Emotional
variability across situations of non-westerners 3. East Asians embrace more contradictory self-views.
Ex1) Chinese self-evaluations show ambivalence.
Ex2) Koreans endorce contradictory personality traits.
4. Being consistent across cultures have less meaning to
East Asians than to Westerners.
-This does not mean non-westerners have unstable self-
-East Asians have different kinds of consistency needs The Self-Concept *Insider vs. Outsider Phenomenological Experiences 1. Independent cultural context
-insider phenomenological experience
-learn what you want, go out and get it
2. Interdependent cultural context
-outsider phenomenological experience
-propriety and circumspection is important
for harmony The Self-Concept *Multicultrual Selves Motivation * Motivations for Self-Enhancement & Self-Esteem
*Approach & Avoidance Motivations
*Agency & Control
*Motivations to Fit in or to Stick Out
*Motivations for Honor Motivation * Motivations for Self-Enhancement & Self-Esteem Motivation *Motivations for Self-Enhancement & Self-Esteem Motivation *Motivations for Self-Enhancement & Self-Esteem 1. Multicultural people have multiple self-concepts and
typically reflect a blending of these.
2. Multicultural people activate their different self-
concepts according to surroundings or primes
(aka. Frame-switching). <Two perspectives> *Hong et al. (2000) Hong Kong Chinese primed with Three
different cultural icons (Chinese/Neutral/American)
*Such frame-switching does not always occur in biculturals;
integrated cultural identities > opposing cultural identities
2nd generation immigrants > 1st generation immigrants <Frame-Switching> 1. "Frame-switching" of multiculturals suggest
multiple knowledge structures
2. Guess what? Monoculturals can also frame-switch!
(Although to a different degree)
3. Additionally- Creativity 1. Key motivations vary according to culture.
2. Independent vs. Interdependent cultural context
*30 out of 31 Experiments had the same conclusion;
"East Asians have little motivation to enhance self,
instead openly attend to negative feedback." <Alternative Explanations> 1. East Asians are more interested in enhancing group-self.
2. East Asians enhance self in subjectively important matters.
*Better-than-Average-Effect vs. Majority of other studies
3. East Asians display to be self-critical, but secretly enhance
*1 out of 31 experiments: the IAT & incredibility Motivation *Approach & Avoidance Motivations Motivation *Agency & Control Motivation *Motivation to Fit in or to Stick Out Motivation *Motivations for Honor <The Cross-Historical Approach> 1. Chronological variation in Self-esteem
*Twenge & Campbell (2001) used Rosenberg
self-esteem scale with US college students
;Explanation of high self-esteem of Americans
is the independent cultural context 1. Approach & avoidance motivations differ
according to culture.
2. East Asians show high avoidance motivation
and low approach motivation; reverse to
Westerners. 1. Independent context
*Incremental Theory: flexible world/ fixed self
-primary control, agency in self
2. Interdependent context
*Entity Theory: fixed world/ flexible self
-secondary control, agency in group
3. Agency in making choices 1. Motivation to Fit in
*Bond & Smith (1996) Americans want to
conform. East Asians exceed this desire.
2. Motivation to Stick Out
*Kim & Markus (1999) Independent self
chose unusual pens while interdependent
chose usual pens. 1. Studies across Southern/Northern America
*Nisbett & Cohen (1996) Southern US protects
honor with aggression.
2. Data converge to prove so. Relationships 1. Culture shapes how people relate to others.
2. Interdependent vs. Independent
-the meaning of ingroup/outgroup
3. Interdependent cultural context: distinction
between ingroup/ outgroup is strong
*Iyengar & Lepper (1999) choice made by others/
social loafing Relationships 3. Relational Mobility
-Independent: voluntary basis with benefit
: often formation-dissolution
-Interdependent: less conditional, more fixed
: less opportunities to new
: ambivalent feeling
Cognition and Perception *Analytic vs. Holistic Thinking
*Attention to Objects & Fields
*Explaining the Behavior of Others Cognition and Perception *Analytic vs. Holistic Thinking 1. Analytic thinking vs. Holistic thinking
2. Nisbett & Friends (2003) found: Analytic
thinking is common in Western culture
whereas holistic thinking is in East Asia. Cognition and Perception *Attention to Objects & Fields 1. Field Independence
2. Americans & Westerners vs. Non-Westerners
*Masuda & Nisbett (2001) Focal object w/
*Chua, Boland & Nisbett (2005) Eye Tracker
3. Difference in field independence also shows
in forms of art. Cognition and Perception *Reasoning Styles 1. Difference in grouping objects is due to
*Norenzayan & Friends (2002) Chinese vs.
Americans in grouping objects
2. The holistic orientation is more tolerant
with contradiction & less linear in future
Cognition and Perception *Explaining the Behaviors of Others 1. Same incident, different accounts
-Westerners focus on person's disposition
-Non-westerners focus on situational info
2. Non-westerners are unique in focusing on
situational information more.
Emotion *Emotions & Facial Expressions
*Intensity of Emotional Experience
*Kinds of Emotional Experiences
*Emotion & Language
*Cultural Variation in Subjective Well-being
& Happiness Emotion *Emotions & Facial Expressions 1. Darwin's (1872/1965) suggestion
2. Ekman & Friends Many researches
*(1971) By 80-90% People from different cultures
understood facial expressions
*(2002) Facial expressions of a person from same
cultural background is easier to tell
*Yuki & Friends (2007) Different use of face for
expression accross culture
*(1969) Display rules Emotion *Intensity of Emotional Expression Q. Is there a parallel between differences and
similarities in facial expressions to that of
*Matsumoto & Friends (1988) Intensity of
display rules of Japan vs. US
*Mesquita & Friends (2002) Japanese three times
less aroused emotionally than Americans
*Anderson & Friends (2006) Heart rate and anger Emotion *Kinds of Emotional Experiences *Mesquita (2001) Experiencing emotion differs
according to self
-Interdependent: Concerned with harmony
-Independent: Concerned how one was affected
*Kitayama et al. (2000) Frequency/ valence/
interpersonal engagement of emotion
-Interdependent: respect, friendly feelings
-Independent: pride, on top of the world Emotion *Emotion & Language 1. Categorization of emotions differ
ex) Buganda: sorrow=anger
Aborigines: "gurakadj"= shame & fear
Samoans: "alofa"= love & pity
2. The term "emotion" differs Emotion *Cultural Variation in Subjective Well-Being & Happiness 1. Worldwide gap in happiness
2. Money means happiness?
3. Life satisfaction differs across cultures
:Positive affect vs. Being respected
4. Variation of desired positive emotions
:High arousal vs. Low arousal Let's Discuss... 1. Motivation) Agency and Control
-Virginia Tech Massacre
2. Motivation) Motivations of Honor
-Honor&anger? Korean/Asian honor?
3. Relationships) Friends of friends
4. Facial Expressions)
-Hello Kitty's smile
5. What makes you happy?
6. Really? Being respected above
having positive affect?