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Science 7 - Unit 5 - Planet Earth

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Jennifer Kwak

on 1 June 2012

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Transcript of Science 7 - Unit 5 - Planet Earth

Unit 5 - Planet Earth Topic 1 - Minerals Topic 2 - Rocks and
the Rock Cycle Topic 3 - Erosion Topic 4 - The Moving
Crust Topic 5 - Earthquakes Topic 6 - Volcanoes Topic 7 - Mountains Topic 8 - Fossils Topic 9 - Geologic
Time Topic 10 - Fossil
Fuels - Rock is made up of one or more pure, naturally occurring, non-living crystalline materials called minerals

- A mineral can be an element (a pure substance) or a compound (two or more elements combined) Mineral Identification - Mohs hardness scale
- Crystals
- Lustre or shininess
- Color
- Streak (color of powdered form)
- Cleavage (breaks along smooth, flat surfaces)
- Fracture (breaks with rough or jagged edges) Topic 1 Review
pg. 360 #1-2 Types of Rock - Igneous rock forms when hot magma or lava cools and solidifies
- Magma is melted rock found below the Earth's crust, where temperatures and pressures are high
- Magma that cools and hardens below the surface is called intrusive rock
- Lava that cools and hardens above the surface is called extrusive rock Igneous Rock - Sedimentary rock is made from sediment - loose materials, such as bits of rock, minerals, and plant and animal remains which become closely packed in layers and cemented together
- Stratification is the arrangement in visible layers
- Compaction is the process of squeezing together
- Cementation is the process of particles being held together by another material Sedimentary Rock Metamorphic
Rock - Metamorphic rock may be formed below the Earths surface when extremely high pressure and heat cause the original rock, or parent rock, to change form The Rock Cycle IGNEOUS
ROCK Magma melting cooling crystallizing Sediments compaction
cementation Weathering
Erosion Weathering
Erosion Heat and Pressure Heat
Pressure Topic 2 Review
pg. 372 #1-3 - Erosion is the movement of rock and mineral grains from one place to another
- Sediment comes from larger rocks that have broken down or worn away through weathering Rocks Can Be Weathered Through... - Mechanical weathering is the physical break-up or disintegration of rocks
sedimentation or "building up"
frost wedging - Chemical weathering breaks down minerals through chemical reactions
acid rain - Biological weathering is the physical or chemical breakdown of rock caused by living organisms, such as plants, animals, bacteria and fungi
earthquakes and volcanoes Topic 3 Review
pg. 380 #1-3 The Earths Interior - The Earths crust is the outermost layer of the Earth
- The mantle is found under the crust and is made up of rock material - Below the mantle is the core
- The outer core is made up of liquid iron and nickel
-The inner core is made of solid material - The crust and mantle make up the lithosphere Continental drift states that the continents have slowly changed their positions over time - The theory of plate tectonics states that the Earths crust is broken up into pieces, called plates , which are always moving on the
Earth's mantle
- Two plates pushing together
are called converging plates
- Two plates pushing apart are
called diverging plates
- They move through a convection current, which is the flow resulting from the rise of warmer materials and the sinking of cooler materials
- When two plates converge, one is shoved under the other in subduction zones Topic 4 Review
pg. 394 #1-2 Topic 1-3 Wrap Up
& Key Terms
pg. 381 #2-10 Measuring Earthquakes - A seismograph measures the vibrations of the bedrock that result from an earthquake
- The method of measurement is called the Richter scale which describes the magnitude (strength) Earthquake Waves - There can be many episodes of
ground-shaking movement in an earthquake caused by seismic waves
- These aftershocks are actually smaller earthquakes - Primary or P waves travel the fastest of all three types of waves and can pass through solids, liquids and gases - Secondary or S waves travel more slowly than P waves and can pass only through solids, not through liquids or gases - Surface waves are the slowest of the three waves, but their rolling motion breaks up roads and buildings, so they do the most damage Locating an Earthquake - The place deep in the crust where the earthquake begins is called the focus
- The surface location directly above the focus is called the epicentre Types of Rock Movement Normal faults occur when rock above the fault moves downward (tension) - Transform faults occur when the plates are moving sideways and the forces build up until the rocks break (shear) - Reverse faults occur when rock above the fault is forced up and over the rock below the fault (compression) Topic 5 Review
pg. 405 #1-5 - A volcano is an opening in the Earths crust that releases lava, steam, and ash when it erupts
openings are called vents
unactive volcanoes are called dormant
- They are formed when rock surfaces beneath the Earths crust push against one another Most mountains are large areas that have been uplifted due to the movement or heating of plates - Sedimentary rocks that are placed under slow, gradual pressure can either fold or break
- The soft rock may bend into curves
The upward or top part of the
folded rock is called anticline
The bottom part of the fold is
called syncline - When sedimentary rock is squeezed from the sides, it can form into slabs that move up and over each other called thrust faulting
- These huge amounts of rock can form mountains called fault block mountains Topic 6 Review
pg. 411 #1-4 Types of Fossils - When water penetrates the bones of a dead animal, the water dissolves the calcium carbonate in the bones and deposits silica (quartz), a very hard mineral, turning the bones into a petrified (rock-like) substance - Carbonaceous film is a type of fossil found in sedimentary rock when organic material is compressed, leaving a thin carbon film
- Original remains is a type of fossil in which all or part of the original organism has been preserved
- Trace fossils are evidence of animal activity Fossil Mould & Cast Formation - A mould is a type of fossil in which the heard parts of an organism have dissolved, leaving a cavity in the rock
- A cast is a type of fossil in which sediments or minerals have filled a mould and hardened into rock Topic 7 Review
pg. 416 #1-5 Topic 8 Review
pg. 422 #1-3 Topic 4-7 Wrap Up
& Key Terms
pg. 417 #1-6 - The principle of superposition states that in undisturbed layers of rock, the oldest layers are always on the bottom and youngest layers are on the top
Strata is sedimentary layers of rock - Relative dating is determining the age of rocks by examining their position in the strata
- When a fossil is used to determining the relative age of the layer of rock it is called an index fossil
- Radiometric dating is calculating the age of rocks by measuring the amount of elements in a rock, and by knowing the half life of the parent
Uranium to lead
Radio carbon dating helping scientists to find out when recent events in the Earths history occurred - The largest divisions in the scale are eons which are then divided into eras which are then divided into periods

eons --> eras --> periods

- Precambrian era is a vast expanse of time with little fossil evidence
bacteria, algae, fungi, etc. Geological Time Scale Rich in Fossil Evidence
- Paleozoic era (ancient life)

- Mesozoic era (middle life)

- Cenozoic era (recent life) - Petroleum is a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbons, such as bitumen, coal, oil, and gas - Bitumen is a heavy, almost solid form of petroleum
- Coal is usually formed from plants that grew on land
- Oil is usually formed from water-based plants and animals
- Natural gas can be formed from either land-based or water-based plants and animals - Fossil fuels are fuels made up of decomposed plants and other organisms that have been hardened or fossilized
- Finding and mining fossil fuels
thrust fault
normal fault
reef Topic 9 Review
pg. 427 #1-4 Topic 10 Review
pg. 432 #1-4 Topic 8-10 Wrap Up
& Key Terms
pg. 433 #1-5 Causes of Erosion
- glaciers
- gravity
- wind
- water
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