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The Human Ecosystem

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orjowan kareem

on 29 July 2015

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Transcript of The Human Ecosystem

The Human Ecosystem
Done by:
Ama'a Mujahed
Hadeel Zatari
Orjowan Juneidi
Rana Zatari

Genetic analyses of samples from different body regions have revealed the diverse and dynamic communities of microbes that inhabit not just the gut and areas directly exposed to the outside world, but also parts of the body that were long assumed to be microbe-free, such as the placenta, which turns out to harbor bacteria most closely akin to those in the mouth.

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Genetic analyses of samples from different body regions have revealed the diverse and dynamic communities of microbes that inhabit not just the gut and areas directly exposed to the outside world, but also parts of the body that were long assumed to be microbe-free, such as the placenta, which turns out to harbor bacteria most closely akin to those in the mouth
What are bacteria?



Are they in your body right now?


What could microbiome mean?
The majority of microbes do not cause disease and in fact are beneficial organisms providing food sources for other organisms, decomposing waste, they help support our health; they help digest our food and provide many kinds of protective mechanisms for human health.
Microbes extract vitamins and other nutrients we need to survive, teach our immune systems how to recognize dangerous invader
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What is an ecosystem?
An ecosystem includes all of the living things (plants, animals and organisms) in a given area, interacting with each other, and also with their non-living environments (weather earth, sun, soil, climate, atmosphere).



Ecosystem

Are each of the members surviving independently?

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Organisms in a terrestrial ecosystem. Arrows connect prey to consumer.
Colored dots indicate colors in the triangle at the upper right. source: http://wwwrcamnl.wr.usgs.gov 

Principle of interdependence

Principle of interdependence in our bodies

Bacteria in human guts are similar to members of an ecosystem.

They have specific nutrient requirements and have a complex dependence on one-another.

This is why affecting one group can affect another

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1. Digestive system

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General functions of bacteria in the human body

The Principle of ecological cycles applied to the human microbiome:
Microbes process B and K vitamins into forms usable by humans.

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Bacteria transforming the organic matter into ammonium & N2 gas into NO2.

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What is the relationship between bacteria and disease?

General functions of bacteria in the human body

Source: University of Maryland Medical Center

2. Immune system

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Some functions of helpful bacteria to our immune system:


train our immune system to recognize and destroy pathogens.
decrease cancer-causing (carcinogenic) activity
protect against harmful bacteria
produce some antibiotics
reduce respiratory infections, like the common cold

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source: histologyolm.stevegallik.org 

Have you ever noticed your moods changing based on what you eat?

What foods affect your moods?

Why could this be?

3. Nervous system

General functions of bacteria in the human body

Some functions of bacteria in our nervous system:

affect human and animal psychology, particularly levels of anxiety

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Medical ecology
Many microorganisms in our bodies are critical for our lives

Goal: Promote an internal environment that enables helpful bacteria to thrive and outcompete unhelpful bacteria

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Source lolalollipop.com 

Solution for the antibiotic crisis?

Bacteria are adapting and finding ways to survive the effects of antibiotics,
ultimately becoming resistant so they no longer work.

Some health conditions that have been found to be directly related to the balance of bacteria in the human body:
obesity,
type 1 diabetes,
childhood asthma,
inflammatory bowel disease,
colorectal cancer,
cardiovascular disease,
human immunodeficiency,
anxiety,
respiratory infections.




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Human Symbiotic Bacteria – Who is in or on You?

Bacteria are common on human surfaces: skin, throat, saliva, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, ears, urethra, vagina, etc. In this experiment, you will choose several parts of your body to explore your bacteria. The bacteria you will meet are considered the "normal flora" of the regions from which they will be isolated, they may include pathogens
Experiment procedure:
We took a sample of bacteria from skin ( cleaned hand and uncleaned hand ) and from teeth ( cleaned teeth and uncleaned teeth ).
At first we took a swab and put it in distilled water then we took a sample from skin, then we spread the sample in petri dish ( blood agar ).
We took a swab then we took a sample from teeth and then we spread the sample in petri dish ( blood agar ).
thanx for lesitning
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