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Web Architecture and Components

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Alex Cross

on 5 March 2014

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Transcript of Web Architecture and Components

Web Architecture and Components
Web Architecture
Web Architecture includes ISPs (Internet Service Providers), web hosting services, domain structure, DNRs (Domain Name Registars) and the worldwide web. Web architecture is what makes up the internet and how it is structured just like the architecture involved when building a house.
ISPs or Internet Service Providers are businesses which provide users access to the internet an example of an ISP would be Sky who sell Sky Broadband or BT who sell BT Infinity fibre optic broadband. ISPs will provide users with a router, the router provides users with their network, internet and their security.
Web Hosting Services
Web hosting services allow users and organisations the ability to make their web site available to other users on the Internet. Web hosting companies allow users or organisations to rent space for there website. There are many examples of web hosting services including Easyspace.
Domain Structure
Domain structure is the term used for a group of computers which are controlled by a central authority. The central authority will usually be a server. Many schools or colleges use a domain structure because it is so much quicker and easier and if a school didnt have a domain structure students would have to sit at the sa computer for IT work and using a domain structure means that the computer system is easier to maintain. Only the server can make changes to the computer system and it controls user access.
DNRs or domain name registars are organisations which manage domain names and allow users to register their own domain names. There are many different DNRs. Legitimate DNRs are accredited by the ICANN which is also known as the Internet Corporation.
World Wide Web
The World Wide Web is a group of internet servers that support HTML formatted documents. These documents support links to oher documents, audio, graphics and video files. These links can be accessed by clicking on a link. The modern day World Wide Web which is known as Web 2.0 allows users to interact with websites.
Components are small programs that perform specific functions and operate with other components or applications and hardware components are devices which perform specific functions.
Hardware and Software Components
Some examples of hardware components would be Mail, Web and Proxy servers. Hardware components are objects you can actually touch. Software Components are objects which aren't actually there like programs. Some examples of software components are Browsers and email programs
Web ,Mail and Proxy Servers
Web servers are computers that provide web pages. Web servers always have an IP address and the might have there own domain name. Mail servers are like virtual post offices. They store emails for local users. Proxy servers sit between client applications and a real server. They see if they can accept requests to the real server and if they can't then the request gets accepted by the real server instead. These are all examples of hardware components.
Browsers and Email Programs
A Browser is a program used to provide users with access to content on the Internet and example of a Browser would be Google. A Browser is an example of a software component. An Email program is another example of a software component. An Email program provides users with their own personal Email account. An example of an email program would be Gmail or AOL Mail.
How Information gets from the servers to your screen
Your Computer
Web Server
The users browser connects to a web server and then makes a request
Then the server accepts the request and sends the content back to the users computer and the web page should appear on the screen.
How the Internet moves information
Web 2.0
Web 2.0 is the term used to describe the latest generation of the World Wide Web. Web 2.0 allows users to interact with websites. Users can add information even if they don't know a lot about web development and this is because Web 2.0 is all about interactivity whereas the first version of the World Wide Web only featured static websites.
Web 3.0
Web 3.0 is the term used to describe the future generations of the World Wide Web. Many experts think that Web 3.0 will be even more intelligent than Web 2.0 and allow users to carry out more complex web searches and interact with the internet even more. Experts think that using Web 3.0 will be like having a PA.
Wikis are seen as a component of Web 2.0. Wikis are websites which features information about a particular subject for example a TV program or a football club. Wikis allow people to edit content on the website which is something that couldn't be done on the World Wide Web.
A blog is another example of a Web 2.0 component. A blog serves as a personal journal for users and are usually updated quite frequently. Blogs allow people to post their views and opinions to the general public. There are many blog websites and users will usually have to create their own personal account to use a blog.
Social Networking
Social Networking is another new feature that is now available because of Web 2.0. There are many social networking sites including Twitter and Facebook. Social networking sites are very similiar to blogs. Social networking sites also feature online games and applications.
Cloud Computing
Cloud computing has also become available to users. Cloud computing allows users to store files over the internet on servers rather than on the computer hard drive. Cloud computing allows services such as apps or servers to be ran over the internet. Cloud computing uses web servers to store data and because of this the data isn't taking up space on the hard drive. When you try to access the data, which could be an app or a document the server will receive a request from your computer and then send the data you need to run the file or app to your computer. Apple use cloud storage which helps reduce the amount of data stored on the device.
Online applications
Online applications are any applications which are using the internet as a client. an example of an online application is Gmail. Online applications are another example of a feature which has become available on Web 2.0. types of online applications include games and business apps. Just like with cloud computing the server stores the data for the online applications so don't use up space on the hard drive an example of the informatuion stored would be the saved files . So when you access a facebook account and go to play a game on facebook. everything on the game, for example your progress or items is stored on a web server and is accessed when a request is sent to the web server and one the request you send get accepted by the server your profile will be loaded up. an example of an online application would be office 365.
How application layer protocols operate
How information is moved and shared on the internet
Application Layer Protocols
Protocols are a set of guidelines used when managing the transfer of data via computer networks. An application layer protocol is a method used in the architecture of computer networks. TCP/IP is a set of protocols which uses application layers. TCP uses HTTP and SMTP in the application layer.
TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol and is the most commonly used set of protocols. TCP/IP is used to transport data and make sure the data gets to the right place. TCP/IP has four different layers these four layers on TCP/IP all link together to process the requests. These layers are the network layer, the internet layer, the transport layer and the application layer. These layers build upon the layer below. The network layer sends and receives TCP/IP packets, The internet layer deals with all of the packaging, addressing and routing functions, the transport layer provides the application layer with the session and datagram communication services and the application layer lets applications access the services of the other layers and defines the protocols used by applications to exchange data. All four layers have core protocols, these protocols are IP, ARP, ICMP, IGMP, TCP and UDP.
HTTP stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol and is a protocol used on the internet. HTTP defines how messages are transmitted and also defines how they are formatted. HTTP can also decide what action browsers and servers must take when responding to messages. When you enter a URL into the browser and HTTP command is sent to the web server.
HTTPS stands for HyperText Transfer Protocol over Secure Socket Layer. This type of protcol is used by any websites who want to store important personal information. HTTPS can keep data secure. If a website is using HTTPS then there will be a lock icon on the browsers window pane and https:// will be included in the URL of the website.
SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. This is a protocol used when Emails are sent between different servers the messages are then retrieved by the Email client. Most Email systems use SMTP. The messages can be retrieved using POP or IMPA. POP is Post Office Protocol and IMAP stands for Internet Message Access Protocol.
There are many ways in which information is moved or shared around the internet. Some examples include Blogs, Wikis and Social Networking sites information can be viewed by people on blogs or wikis and then shared of different social networking sites.
TCP/IP Part 2
TCP/IP works by splitting data into small packets and these packets are then sent to the computer. The protocols at the other end on the computer then reassemble the data by linking the packets up and then the website or whatever you want to access appears on the screen.
Application Layer
Transport Layer
Network Interface Layer
Internet Layer
Network Interface Layer
Internet Layer
Transport Layer
Application Layer
The diagram above shows how TCP/IP works and what the functions of the layers are. The four layers link together to send the data and each layer has a different role. All of the protocols used also have a role. IP is used to handles IP addressing, APR handles the resolution of addresses, ICMP is in charge of reporting errors and providing diagnostic functions, IGMP is used to sort out IP group mambership. The TCP protocl is used establish a TCP connection and recovers packets lost in transmission, UDP is used when the data being transferred is very small, HTTP transfers files that make up web pages, FTP is used for interactive file transfer. SMTP transfers mail messages and attachments and Telnet is used to log of to network hosts.
The application layer is the top layer in TCP/IP and it is charge of the applications on the computer that are in charge of internet utilities and network connection
The transport layer is in charge of transporting the data.
The internet layer is the most important layer and is used to route the packets
The network layer is in charge of sending the packets of data over the network
The network layer also receives data packets from over the network
The internet layer uses several protocols. These protocols are IP(Internet Protocol), APR(Address Resolution Protocol), ICMP(Internet Control Message Protocol) and IGMP(Internet Group Management Protocol).
The trasnport layer uses TCP(Transmission Control Protocol) and UDP(User Datagram Protocol).
The application layer uses several protocols, these are HTTP(HyperText Transfer Protocol), FTP(File Transfer Protocol), SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) and Telnet a terminal emulation protocol.
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