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Autism Spectrum Disorders

Autism
by

Jaclyn Bond

on 17 March 2011

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Transcript of Autism Spectrum Disorders

Chapter 11: Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders Autism was the first of the autistic spectrum disorders to be identified (first part of the 20th century.) By: Jaclyn Bond
Ryan Merrill
MaryBeth Zimmerman -sometimes mistakenly referred to as “mild autism”
-social interaction impairments
-develop restrictive, repetitive interests, beliefs, and activities that impair social, occupational, or other areas of functioning
-do not have communication impairments like those with autism
-no significant delay in cognitive ability like those with autism
Asperger Syndrome -rare disorder found mostly in girls (almost always)
-neurodevelopmental disorder
-child usually develops normally until about age 6 to 18 months of age
-after that age the symptoms start to emerge
-Characteristics: hypotonia – loss of muscle tone
Reduced eye contact
Decelerated head growth
Disinterest in play activities
-Slowly after these symptoms start to emerge, the following occur:
Rapid developmental regression including handwriting, unsteady walking, breath-
ing irregularities, feeding and swallowing difficulties, severely limited expressive
and receptive language development, and seizures Rett Syndrome -child develops normally in the first 2 years of life
-starts regressing developmentally between the ages of 2 and 10
-at least two of the following areas must be affected:
Expressive or receptive language
Social skills or adaptive behavior
Bowel or bladder control
Play or motor skills such as coordination
-display communication issues and behavior characteristics similar to autism
Childhood Disintegrative Disorder -diagnosed when a child displays some autistic behaviors and meets some criteria for the other developmental disorders
-Example: a child whose autistic behaviors begin after the age of 3 or an individual with severe impairments with communication and social interactions but does not have restrictive or repetitive behaviors.
Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS) Social Characteristics of Autism
- Difficulty with social interaction is one of the main characteristics of people with autism
Communication Characteristics of Autism

-Deviations in language development
-Lose speech by age 2, for some it never returns
-echolalia: “parroting” or repeating of words and phrases said to them
-palilalia: child repeats his or her own words
-echopraxia: the repetition of others’ gestures and movements
-neologisms: using made up words
-child may refer to his/herself as their name instead of “me” or “I”
-Deficits in Communicative Intent
-high vocabulary but might not use it appropriately…might respond to a peer with a completely different answer that is not related to the question the peer asked
-interpret language very literally Behavioral Characteristics of Autism
-repetitive and stereotypic behavior
-extreme need for routine
-unusual preoccupation or interest in certain objects or activities/facts
-abnormal sensory and motor functions
-Savant syndrome: occurs in up to 10% of people with autism and involves spectacular abilities in areas such as music, art, math, calendar calculating, and mechanical/spatial skills EX/Rain Main outstanding math skills allowing him to calculate betting odds in Vegas
Cognitive Characteristics of Autism
-Low IQ
-Difficulty in executive functioning (planning, shifting attention, and using working memory)
-Deficits in theory of mind has to do with mentalizing or seeing the world from the perspective of others. A child with autism may develop that skill by adolescence or may never develop it at all
-Strengths in visual skills Autistic Disorder (Autism) -Autism means “living in self” in Greek
-characterized by behavioral deficits in three categories: social interaction, communication, and restrictive or repetitive behaviors.
-DSM-IV-TR states that an individual with autism must display problems in these three areas before the age of 3. Autism can be diagnosed after age 3 but the behaviors must be present before that age when using the DSM-IV-TR definition.
-IDEA ’04 definition does not require that the behaviors occur before age 3: Autism means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age three, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences.
Causes
-except for Rett syndrome, causes are unknown but believed to be neurological
-Rett syndrome: the mutation of the gene MeCP-2 is responsible for Rett’s syndrome

The Brain and Autism
-Autism is a result of abnormalities in brain structure or brain fuction
-some of these abnormalities could be genetic or caused by environmental factors
-children with autism can have a brain 10% larger than those without autism
-as children grow the difference in brain size between them and others their age decreases
-Two particular areas of the brain that have been studied in connection with autism:
-Limbic System - plays a role in emotion and the formation of memories
-Cerebellum – regulates attention, sensory modulation, emotional modulation, and motor and behavior initiation
-Decreased blood flow to the left hemisphere of the brain which is responsible for language function
How are students with ASD identified?
Early screening – parents are usually the first to identify that their child is behaving differently
Symptoms of Autism Before Age 2 Checklist and the Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (Baron-Cohen, Allen, & Gillberg, 1992). Name: Johnny
Date of Birth: April 5, 2004
Grade: First
Reason for Referral: Severe impairments with communication and social intercations.
Condition: Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified
Characteristics: Difficulty socializing with others, repetitive behaviors, and heightened sensitivities to certain stimuli.
Information from Parents: Johnny has difficulty forming friendships with peers. He also appears to have repetitive behaviors, such as hand moving and teeth grinding. References
Natof, T. H., Romanczyk, R. G. (2009). Teaching Students with ASD: Does Teacher Enthusiasm Make a Difference? Behavioral Interventions, 24(1), 55-72.

Taylor, R. L., & Smiley, L. R., & Richards, S. B. (Eds.). (2009). Exceptional Students: Preparing Teachers for the 21st Century. New York: McGraw-Hill.

Rain Man - Casino Scene. Retrieved March 15, 2011 from http://www.you tube.com/watch?v=RW1qHA5Hqwc.

Autism-What Kind of World Do You Want. Retrieved March 15, 2011 from http://www.you tube.com/watch?v=GV46pX6m_kI&feature=related Modifications for Teaching:
Use concrete examples of concepts before teaching the abstract.
Relate information to the student's experiential base.
Reduce the number of concepts presented at one time.
Provide consistent review of any lesson before introducing new information.
Require verbal responses to indicate comprehension.
Provide clear, concise directions and concrete examples for homework assignments.

Modifications for Classroom:
If necessary, use preferential seating.
Help keep student's work area free of unnecessary materials.
Use checklists to help the student get organized.
Provide opportunities for movement.
Create a communication book for the parent
Daily comments home to parent and from parent to teacher can help control behavior issues.
Provide the student with a transition warning before activities begin.
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