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Intellectual Disability

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Amber Claussen

on 25 July 2014

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Transcript of Intellectual Disability

An intellectual disability is a disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior, which covers many everyday social and practical skills. This disability originates before the age of 18 (aaidd.org).
What is an Intellectual Disability?
Abnormal genes may cause ID. Common genetic conditions include fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome.
Issues during pregnancy
Prenatal development can sometimes cause ID if cells divide improperly, alcohol is consumed, or if the mother contracts a disease such as Rubella.
Complications during birth
Oxygen supply is cut off
Health Issues
Diseases such as the measles or meningitis, malnutrition, lack of medical care, exposure to environmental toxins like lead or mercury, and stroke or severe head injuries can also result in intellectual disabilities (National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2011).
Prevalence & Indicators
More than 545,000 children between the ages of 6 and 21 have an ID to some degree
1 in 10 children receiving SPED have some form of intellectual disability (Intellectual Disability Fact Sheet, 2014)

By: Amber, Danielle, & Sonia
Intellectual Disability

Intellectual functioning (or intelligence) refers to general mental capacity, such as learning, reasoning, and problems solving.
Indicators include:
sitting up, crawling, and walking later
talking later, or difficulties talking
memory difficulties
lack of understanding with social norms
trouble seeing consequences of their behavior
difficulty with logical thinking
Assessment is based on two things:
Intellectual functioning (IQ)
Adaptive behavior
The IQ must fall below 70-75 to qualify, while level of adaptive behavior is based on the ability to live and function independently in comparison to other people of the same age.
daily living skills (getting dressed, using the bathroom, feeding oneself
communication skills
social skills (National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities, 2011)
Let's Start with a Quiz!!
Please answer the following ?'s TRUE or FALSE

1. An intellectual disability is defined as an inability to learn due to lack in processing and integration skills.
2. Mental retardation is the same thing as intellectual disability.
3. Intellectual disabilities often accompany other disorders.
4. ID's are diagnosed by assessing IQ, daily functioning, and academic achievement.
5. You can be diagnosed with ID after the age of 18.
6. ID are caused by genetics, health issues, pregnancy complications, strokes, or problems during birth.
7. ID's are the most common developmental disability.
Creating Positive School Experiences
"School counselors are responsible for meetings the needs of all students, comfort with and positive attitudes towards students with disabilities can be viewed as important qualities of a professional, ethical, and multiculturally competent school counselor" (Milsom, 2006).
Creating positive school experiences, that promote academic, career, personal/social growth
Examining the behavior and attitudes of school staff & students
Ex. of how negative attitudes may manifest themselves
Strategies: in-service and professional development opportunities
The more knowledge & contact staff have working with students who have disabilities, the greater their attitudes/behaviors, and thus the more positive school experience for students with disabilities
Supporting cooperative social interactions between students with disabilities and students without
Peer Tutoring (ex. PLMS)
Character Education programs
Working with Parents/Families
"School counselors can serve an important role in, on one hand, reassuring and educating parents regarding measures taken at school
to insure children's safety and, on the other hand, alerting school
officials to safety concerns that need attention. An additional important role for school counselors working with parents of students with disabilities is to encourage parents to help their children develop independence by not overprotecting them" (Taub, 2006).
Sadness that may be ongoing/occur periodically
Parent Support Groups (in schools & community)
Resource list available, including books:
You Will Dream New Dreams (Klein & Shive)
Reflections from a Different Journey (Klein & Kemp)
Safety Concerns
Physical (ex. falling)
Bullying (students unable to communicate won't be able to report these instances)
"Accurate information is one way of reducing bias in our schools and in the larger society" (Taub, 2006)
Back-to-school nights/open houses
Small Groups focused on friendship
Creating friendship groups with students who have
disabilities and those who do not
IDEA, mandates that formal transitions be
put in place to assist students as they prepare for
post secondary activities
Career Planning (Wadsworth, Milsom, & Cocco, 2004)
Rehabilitation Counselors
Systems Approach
Having systems work together to benefit student
Ex. Transition from ES to MS
Goal: to minimize stress on student and family, and to make the transition as successful as possible
"Collaboration has been described as one of the most important strategies in helping youth with disabilities move successfully from school into employment and adult life" (Milsom, 2007).
Students should be involved to greatest extent possible
Talking Mats (IEP)

Advocacy in IEP Process
"School counselors have so many responsibilities in schools today it is unreasonable to expect daily coordination of all interactions with special education students, teachers, and parents. However, in a supporting role as a facilitator and advocate, school counselors have the opportunity to make a significant impact, improving the process." (Geltner & Leibforth, 2008).
Traditional "deficient" approach
Negative, not effective, limited family input, educational jargon (lack of understanding)
SBSC Framework
Each individual has strengths, incorporate into IEP Plan
Educators & parents generate before meeting
Value family perspective to get a more
holistic picture
Meet Jocelyn
Grade & School: 5th, Pioneer Elementary (Sunnyside, Wa)

Favorite subject: PE

Favorite color: blue

Favorite sport: basketball

Favorite food: nachos

Favorite fun activity: play games

Fun fact: I am a twin.
A mother's perspective...
Parent-"I needed a second opinion."
Teacher-"I don't know how to teach her."

Participation and Protection
"I knew that I was going to have to fight for her."
Tough but tender

Autonomy vs. Authority
Independence and self-worth
Health and safety

Guided decision making
"The school system tends to make it easier for them."
Suggestions and encouragment
A mother's perspective...


Personal abilities
"Don't compare them to anyone. Work with what they CAN do."
Chronological age vs developmental ability (Joce-higher adaptability, lower intelligence)
Have expectations
Listen to the parents and the student

External factors
Interaction with others-some inclusion goes a long way
Definition of Intellectual Disabilities (2014). American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities. Retrieved July 16, 2014, from aaidd.org
Bolduc, F.V. & Tullly, T. (2009). Fruit flies and intellectual disability. Fly, 3(1), 91-104.
Geltner, J., & Leibforth, T. (2008) . Advocacy in the IEP process: Strengths-based school counseling in action. Professional School Counseling, 162-165.
Intellectual Disabilities. (2011). National Dissemination Center for Children with Disabilities. Retrieved July 17, 2014, from http://www.parentcenterhub.org/respitory/intellectual
Intellectual Disability Fact Sheet. (2014). Center for Disease Control. Retrieved July 17, 2014, from http://www.cdc.gov/actearly
Martin, R. (2006). A real life-a community: The empowerment and full participation of intellectual disability in their community.
Journal of Intellectual and Developmental Disability, 31(1),
Milsom, A. (2006) . Creating positive experiences for students with disabilities. Professional School Counseling, 10, 66-71.
Milsom, A. (2006) . Interventions to assist students with disabilities through school transitions. Professional School Counseling, 10, 273-277.
Saaltink, R., MaKinnon, G., Owen, F., & Tardif-Williams, C. (2012). Protection, participation, and participation through participation: Young people with intellectual disabilities and decision making in the family context.
Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56(11),
Scarborough, S.L., & Gilbride, D.D. (2006). Developing relationships with rehabilitation counselors to meet the transition needs of students with intellectual disabilities.
ASCA, 10(1),
Taub, D. (2006) . Understanding the concerns of parents of students with disabilities: Challenges and roles or school counselors. Professional School Counseling, 10, 52-57.
Wadsworth, J., Milsom, A., & Cocco, K. (2004). Career development for adolescents and young adults with mental retardation. Professional School Counseling, 8(2), 141-147.
Questions? Comments?
TED: Let's Talk About Intellectual Disabilities
Loretta Claiborne
Full transcript