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The Periodic Table

3 main categories of elements: metals, nonmetals and metalloids plus 4 families: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens and noble gases
by

Cindy Mullikin

on 29 March 2017

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Transcript of The Periodic Table

Three Main Categories of Elements
metals, non-metals, metalloids
Alkali Metals
The alkali metals are
- extremely reactive metals
- shiny and light in weight
- malleable (bendable) and sometimes soft enough to be cut with a dull knife
- have 1 electron in outer shell
- used to make fireworks, pyrotechnics, synthetic rubber, plastics, batteries, air purification, table salt, paper, textiles, matches, inks, and dyes

Halogens
- highly reactive and can be found in many minerals and in seawater
-at room temperature and pressure, fluorine and chlorine are gases, bromine is a liquid and iodine is a solid
- the only family exhibiting all three states of matter at room temperature
-seven electrons in outer shell
- uses toothpaste, vitamin supplements, baby formulas, public water, disinfectants
-have colored vapors, cosmetics, and medicine
- all are diatomic
Noble Gases
-all are a gas at room temperature
-used in arc welding, deep-sea divers' gas tanks, light bulbs, inflate the tires of large aircraft, weather balloons, and blimps, sign tubing , photographic flash units and in lighthouses
- have 8 electrons (except helium that is full with only 2 electrons) in outer shell
- are basically inert and do not often react to form compounds.
The Periodic Table
There is a lot of information found on the periodic table. We will focus on the following:
1. The three main categories of elements
2. The four families: alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, halogens, and the noble gasses.
3. Why elements share rows and columns.


-found on the left side of periodic table
- good conductors of heat and electricity
- shiny
- malleable and ductile
- all are solid at room temperature except mercury
- nearly 75% of the known elements are metals
- iron, zinc, nickel, silver, and copper are a few examples
Metals
Non-Metals

- found on the right side
-are poor conductors of heat and electricity
-are not malleable or ductile
-dull
- solid non-metals are brittle and break easy
- halogens and noble gasses are considered a subset of the non-metals
- they exist in all three states of matter at room temperature.
-----Gases: H, N, O, F, Cl, all Noble gases
-----Liquid: Br
-----Solids: C, P, Se, I, and S



- B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, At
-have properties of both metals and non-metals.
-conduct heat and electricity better than non-metals but not as well as metals.
-are ductile and malleable.
-can be shiny or dull.
-the most common is silicon.
Metalloids
Let's meet the families!
Alkali Metals
Alkaline Earth Metals
Halogens
Noble gases

Alkaline Earth Metals
- the second most reactive family of elements
-called alkaline because they make "basic" or "alkaline" solutions.....this is the opposite of an acid
- has two electrons in their outer shell.
- used in glow-in-the-dark paints, fireworks, batteries, flashbulbs, and special alloys.

Notice how many of the elements are
metals
!
Neutral atom: no charge because there are the same number of protons as there are electrons.

Ion: Charged atom due to a loss or gain of an electron

Isotope: Atoms of the same element with different masses due to a different number of neutrons.
Are all atoms of the same elements exactly the same?

NO! They can vary in charge and/or mass.
What about the number of protons? Are they ever different for atoms of the same element?

NO!!!!!! The number of protons is constant. If the number changes, you no longer have the same element.

Full transcript