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Chapter 17: Renaissance and Reformation
Transcript of Chapter 17: Renaissance and Reformation
of interest in art and learning which occurred
between 1350-1550. During the Renaissance, European's
believed that people could make the world
better. They celebrated human achievements
and became secular which means the were
more interested in the world than religion. The Renaissance began in two major
cities, Florence & Venice. Italy at the time
was the center of the Roman Empire. The
country could afford artists to create art
because of all their wealth. Individual cities
would try to increase their fame. The Rise of Italy's City-States By: Raveena Patel, Sam Rock,
James Taylor, & Kaitlyn Modaff No one ruler was able to unite all of Italy.
This was because the Catholic Church wanted
to prevent a strong ruler from controlling the pope
the Church. Italy was the perfect location for trade.
They traded with the French, Spanish,
Dutch, English, Turks, Arabs, and Byzantine. The Mongols helped promoted trade by protecting
the Silk Road. Marco Polo, a merchant from Venice,
had published a book about his travels to the East. Since Florence and Venice were the most important
cities, they were also very famous and very wealthy. In
Florence, they began lending money and charging interest
Florence's richest family was the Medici. Venice was built
on a swampy island. Venetians navigated there way by boat
and became great sailors and shipbuilders. The Urban Noble Section 1 Noble families moved into cities and mixed with wealthy
merchants,. Noble's set examples for merchants like there
etiquette. Noble's and merchants became known as the
upper class. In the beginning, city-states were republics. As
time went on, they gave power to one man to run
the government. In Venice, the doge had power.
Later, that eventually lost power to a small group
of nobles. In Florence, the Medici family gained power
and ruled for many years. Since they had to deal with the other
city states, italian rulers developed a diplomacy,
which is the art of negotiating or making deals. Niccolo Machiavelli, a diplomat in Florence,
thought everyone was too greedy and self-
centered. He thought rulers shouldn't try to be
good, but should do whatever it takes to keep
power and protect their city. Section 2 Renaissance Humanism Humanism was a way of understanding the world
that was based on the values of the Ancient Greece
and Ancient Romans. Western Europeans began studying Greek
and Roman works in the 1300's. During
Crusades, Western Europeans were exposed
to Greek and Roman culture that has been
preserved by Arab scholars. Italians studied
ancient books, statues, and buildings. Petrarch was a famous scholars of ancient
works. He encouraged Europeans to search
for Latin manuscript in monasteries. New Libraries in Venice were built to
house the manuscripts. Writers during the Renaissance
began writing in the Vernacular,
the everyday language of people. Dante Alighieri wrote the The
Divine Comedy, one of the world's
greatest poems, in the vernacular.
In England, the poem Chaucer wrote
The Canterbury Tales in English. Johannes Gutenburg developed a printing
press that used movable type. The press
could print books quickly, so more books
became available. Gutenburg's Bible was the 1st European
book printed on the Press. Leonardo da Vinci was great scientist,
artist, inventor, and engineers. Artists in Renaissance Italy There are major style differences between
Medieval and Renaissance art. Renaissance
artists used new techniques, such as perspective
and chiaroscuro, to add realism and express
drama and emotion. Leonardo da Vinci , a great scientist, was
a trained artist. One of his most famous
works was The Last Supper. Raphael was one of Italy's most famous
painters who painted frescoes in the Vatican.
His best known painting is School of Athens. Michelangelo Buonarroti was a painter and
sculptor. He is best known for his sculpture of
David. The Renaissance Spread The Northern Renaissance refers to art
from places we know as Belgium, Luxembourg,
Germany, and the Netherlands. Northern Renaissance artists
used different techniques than artists
in Italy. Some artists even developed
oil paints. Albrecht Durer was an artist best known
for his engravings. William Shakespeare was the greatest
English writer of the Renaissance. He wrote
tragedies, comedies. and historical plays. Section 3 Calls for Church Reform Martin Luther was a monk who challenged
the Roman Catholic Church. At first, Luther
wanted only to reform the Catholic Church,
leading to the period being called the Reformation.
The movement to create Christian churches other
than the Catholic Church became known as
Protestantism. Desiderius Erasmus was a leader in Christian humanism.
He felt humans could use reason to be better Christians. People became upset with the Church's focus on money.
They were upset over the sale of indulgences, or pardons
of sins. This practice motivated Martin Luther to write a list of 95 arguments known as Ninety-Five Theses. Luther's ideas led to a new religious denomination
or an organized branch of Christianity. Politics and Lutheranism Local kings and nobles of the Holy Roman Empire
didn't want Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor,
to become too powerful. Kings realized they could increase their power
if they supported Lutheranism. The Catholic Church could not earn income
from the Lutheran Kingdoms. Charles V warred the local kings but could
not defeat them. The fighting ended the Peace of Ausburg Calvin and Calvinism In earlier years, John Calvin studied
theology, which is the study of questions about God, in Paris. Forced to flee Paris, because of his
discussions of Lutheranism, he left
for Geneva, Switzerland. Calvin taught that God's will is absolute
and decides everything in the world in advance, including who will go to heaven and who won't. This belief is called predestination. Calvin's belief that congregation should
choose their own leaders supported the idea
of English settlers in America that they
should be able to elect their own political leaders. Calvinism became the basis of many
Protestant churches, such as the
Puritans and Presbyterians. Section 4 Counter- Reformation Although the Catholic Church warred against Protestantism, I knew it needed to reform some practices. Pope Paul III called a church council in Trent, near Rome, to reform the church. The Church created seminaries, or special
schools The priest belonging to the Society of Jesus ,known as the Jesuits, were the pope's agents in Europe. Ignatius of Loyola, founded the Jesuits. The Jesuits taught, preached, and fought heresy, or religious beliefs that contradict what the Church says is true. Catholics Bourbons Huguenots The Huguenots were the French Protestants Classes The Bourbons were also the Protestants.
They were also the second most powerful
family in France. The son of Henry II , Charles became king in 1560. Because Charles was still a little boy when he became king, his mother Catherine de Medici ran the government for him. A civil war broke out in France between the Catholics and the Protestants that lasted more than 30 years. The war ended with Henry of Navarre, the leader of the Huguenot forces and head of the Bourbon family, became King Henry IV. Henry agreed to become Catholic. The Thirty-Years' War was fought between the Catholics and the Protestants in the Holy Roman Empire from 1618-1648. During the Middle Ages, Spain was ruled by Muslims. Non-Muslims and Jews had some limitations placed on them, but Jews were treated better than in most other. When Catholics took over Spain, Jews and Muslims were no longer welcomed. Ferdinand and Isabella established the Spanish Inquisition to ensure religious unity. The English Reformation During the 1400's, English nobles had fought each other to control the kingdom. The Tudor family won. Henry VII was the second Tudor king of England. When Henry's wife, Catherine didn't have a male child. Henry asked the Pope to annul the marriage, which would allow him to marry again. Henry hoped to have a son with another wife to maintain Tudor control of England. The pope refused to annul the marriage. He then asked the highest religious official in England, to annul the marriage. The Pope then excommunicated Henry. Henry declared that the king, not the pope, was the head of the Church of England Mary I was the daughter of Henry and Catherine. When she became behind queen in 1533, she tried to reinstate Catholicism as the religion of England. After she died, her sister Elizabeth became queen. Elizabeth was a protestant. She restored the Anglican Church as the official religion of England. Thanks for Watching!