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Transcript of Dissertation Presentation
Canada and Australia develop between 1945 and 1966? The Current
Historical Themes “we’ve got to have it and it’s got to have a bloody Union Jack on it” Ernest Bevin Why research the area? The US/GB relationship The Cold War
Dynamic – Super Powers Australian National
History - Nuclear
Tests History British National History -The Secret State/ Development of Atomic weapons British
Imperial History Why research the area? - Opportunity to explore and contribute to a new developing field of history
Since 2000/2001 many new documents have been released.
Many of these documents have still yet to be put through extensive historical analysis.
There are still many documents that have not been released and historians can help speed up this process. Why research the area? Information and Sources Secondary Literature -Potential for public interest
There will be a renewed discussion in the coming years over the future of Trident and its replacement.
The Diamond Jubilee triggered a renewed public interest in the Commonwealth.
Britain is currently reassessing its European relationship.
In January 2013 William Hague signed the Defence and Security Co-operation Treaty with Australia. Interestingly both Australia and Britain spoke of a new future relationship and a need to address recent “neglect”.
"This government has made a concerted effort to renew and strengthen our relationship with one of our oldest allies. This defence treaty will drive forward closer co-operation on a wide range of issues.” Philip Hammond Information and Sources Dissertation Themes
- There is very little literature on this exact topic therefore the literature that I will be using comes from a range of different but relevant historical backgrounds.
Particularly important texts include;
- Peter Hennessy, The Secret State, (Penguin books, 2010)
-Wayne Reynolds, Australia’s Bid for the Atomic Bomb, (Melbourne University Press, 2000)
-Wayne Reynolds, Rethinking the Joint Project: Australia's Bid for Nuclear Weapons, 1945-1960, The Historical Journal, Vol. 41, No. 3, 1998, pp. 853-873
-John C. Blaxland, Strategic Cousins: Australian and Canadian Expeditionary Forces and the British and American Empires, (McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2006) Problems and Challenges Dissertation Themes: Preliminary Discoveries Turnstile - I have found evidence of a very close link with Canada in terms of strategic planning and organisation. Possible evidence of a relationship that is working outside of the 'special relationship' with the USA. Dissertation Themes: Preliminary Discoveries War Book Planning - It is clear that Britain is not willing to disclose Britain's War book or create a coordinated Commonwealth War book but it is willing to advise Canada, Australia and New Zealand on how to create a war book and coordinate various other areas of planning to "reverse the trend of thought down under that Britain is losing interest militarily in that area".
It is also clear that from this document that different departments have different priorities with the Foreign Office pushing strategic planning with USA and France while the Office for Commonwealth Affairs wants coordination with the dominions.
There is also interesting differences at the top of government among individuals with some placing more value on the Commonwealth link than others.
A particularly interesting revelation comes from the political adviser to the Commander in Chief for the Far East who suggested that there should be provision for the evacuation of children to Canada, Australia and New Zealand. Indeed he argued that... Secondary Literature L.J. Butler, Britain and Empire Adjusting to a Post-Imperial World, (I.B Tauris, 2002)
John Darwin, The Empire Project, (Cambridge University Press, 2009)
Lorna Arnold, A Very Special Relationship: British Atomic Weapon Trials in Australia, (Stationery Office Books, 1987) Key Research Objectives 1. To understand and explain how the nuclear relationship changed from 1945 to 1966.
2. To reach a greater understanding of how and to what extent the three countries coordinated nuclear strategy and had a nuclear understanding.
3. To assess the strength of the Commonwealth link in the context of nuclear policy.
4. To assess the viability of a Nuclear Commonwealth as a third force.
5. To place the nuclear relationship into the wider historiography by taking a fresh look at the Cold War dynamic and challenging current historiographical norms and assumptions. -The Commonwealth Relationship 1948, Reference: CAB 129/30
-Co-operation with Australia on atomic weapons and future tests 1955-1956, Reference: DO 35/7157
- South East Asia Treaty Organisation: Nuclear Weapons 1956, Reference CAB 129/80
-UK nuclear tests in Pacific: Canadian co-operation
1957-1958, Reference: DO 164/53
-Need for liaison on defence preparations: proposal for new Commonwealth body
1950-1951 Reference: PREM 8/1360
-Plans for informing countries of Commonwealth on UK defence policy
1958 Reference: FO 371/135609
-Discussions between UK, Australia and Canada on future of Blue Streak rocket
1960, Reference: DO 164/56
-Canadian Defence facility in Bermuda
1964-1965 Reference: DO 164/123
-History of Australian policy towards the acquisition of a nuclear weapons capability, Reference NAA A1209, 1965/6470
-Nuclear weapons and guided missiles in communist China, Macmillan and Menzies, Reference NAA A7941, N12 This is how the dissertation will be roughly ordered and the topics that shall be handled.
1. The Post War Commonwealth
The end of the Second World War, The Manhattan Project, The McMahon Act 1946, NATO 1949, The quest for the bomb, Operation Hurricane 1952.
2. The Nuclear Commonwealth
Joint projects, The quest for the H-bomb, Commonwealth Strategy South East Asia,V-Force/Missile Projects, Shared Assumptions and Understandings, Policy between equals and friends.
3. The Strategic Commonwealth
The Alternate Seat of Government - The Commonwealth Post Nuclear Exchange, War books and strategy, The 1958 US–UK Mutual Defence Agreement, The Late 1950's - 1960's Defence Reviews, Differences at Whitehall, Polaris and the impact of SLBM, Withdrawal from the East of Suez and its meaning. Summary 1. The restriction of documents
2. The redaction of released documents
3. The level of specific details; reports, committees, individuals, code words etc.
The Strath Report, 'Fallex 64', 'PYTHON', 'SHADWELL'
4. The Nuclear Challenge and the ambiguity of nuclear weapons, 'Would Britain defend Australia in a nuclear war?' - I hope to prove that there is a close and under researched relationship between Britain, Canada and Australia.
- I hope to analyse new and previously unseen information.
- I hope to challenge current historiographical assumptions and themes.
- I hope to use a wide variety of primary and secondary sources. Certain information removed for open/online Prezi publication. Certain information removed for open/online Prezi publication. This is an edited version of my dissertation presentation that gives an overview of the themes covered.
I hope anyone who has been redirected from my linkedin finds the presentation interesting and that it gives a taster of my dissertation topic. Certain information removed for open/online Prezi publication. Title page for open/online Prezi - Some information has been removed such as sources and the original video which has been replace with a relevant public domain (youtube) video.
- I maintain the right to the academic theme of the work in this presentation in terms of its content and ideas. It should not be plagiarized.
- I have used a range of public domain (Google) pictures these are not my own - I will remove any upon request.