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Foundations of Planning
Transcript of Foundations of Planning
Why Do Managers Plan Establishing Goals
and Developing Plans How Do Managers Plan Contemporary Issues in Planning Primary management function:
establishes the basis for all other things
Concerned with both ends and means
Why plan? 3. Minimizes waste and redundancy
4. Establishes the goals or standards
used in controlling
1. Provides direction 2. Reduces uncertainties Caraan|Lim|Pamintuan|Pullante Goals desired outcomes or targets foundations of planning goals goals goals Types of Goals Financial Vs Strategic Stated Vs Real Plans Documents that outline how goals are going to be met.
Usually include resource allocations, schedules, and other necessary actions to accomplish the goals.
Approaches to Setting Goals Traditional Goal Setting Goals are set at the top of the organization and then become subgoals for each organizational area. Cons:
Broad terms, thus making the goals ambiguous
Successful: Means-End Chain
Assisted by Formal Planning Department
Management by Objectives Process of setting mutually agreed-upon goals, and using
those goals to evaluate employee performance Jointly determined by employees and their manager
Four Elements Goal specificity
Participative decision making
Explicit time period
Cons: Not as effective in times of dynamic changes
Criticisms of Planning Plans may create rigidity. Planning can't be developed
for a dynamic environment. Plans can't replace
intuition and creativity. Planning focuses on today's competition, not on tomorrow's survival. Planning reinforces success,
which may lead to failure. Just planning isn't enough. Well-written Goals Written in terms of outcomes
rather that actions.
Measurable and quantifiable Clear as to a timeframe
Challenging yet attainable
Written down Communicated to all necessary organizational members
Steps in Goal Setting Review the organization's mission or purpose Evaluate available resources Determine the goals invdividually or with input from others Right down the goals and communicate
to all those who need to know Review results and whether goals are being met Contingency Factors that Affect Planning Level in the organization Degree on environmental uncertainty Length of future commitments Effective Planning in Dynamic Environments What are their goals? How will they achieve these goals? What challenges do they face? How will SM resolve these?