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SHIFT TO COAL
SHIFT TO NATURAL GAS
SHIFT TO OIL
and so did the needs of energy
% of the energy used to produce electricity all over the world
GHG, particulate matter, sulphur and nitrogen oxides
Internal combustion engine
Model-T automobile (Henry Ford. 1908)
Oil became the fuel of choice
Easy transport and storage
In the middle of the 20th century it overtook coal as the first worldwide source of energy
Steel and Iron industry
Is it safe enough?
Future free carbon-energy?
Until now the developed world used to consume two-thirds of total oil. Developing countries are increasing their energy needs, evenly distributed among them.
Currently 90% non renewal, Mainly oil, coal and natural gas
As they availability decreases its price will rise, becoming every time less worthwhile.
They spread heterogeneously along the planet so its use creates a dependence on the country that exploits them. Risk of embargo and scarcity in a political or economical conflict.
Negative effects on health and the environment, such as the climate change, the smog, the air pollution, the acid rain and the ozone depletion.
Why do we need an energy transition?
Solar thermal or PV
All over the planet
They have less energy density than non renewables, so we are proposing a changing from higher energy density but generally lower-cost source to lower energy density substitutes that are generally more expensive.
They must be converted into electricity to be transported and stored: energy loss
Being renewable doesn't imply being continuous or equal in every region,
Price and energy to be processed: e.g. photovoltaic cells.
We must rely on renewable energies by:
Encouraging technological developments such as the smart grid.
Making its prices more competitive: government incentives and subsidies
What we need to do is really improve energy efficiency standards, develop in full scale renewable and alternative energy and use the one resource we have in abundance, our creativity.
Laura Grau Valls
Universitat de Barcelona
10th LERU Brigh Conference. 2013